Application Deadline for DEN Summer Institutes

Application Deadline for DEN Summer Institutes is April 11.

If you’re interested in joining your fellow STAR Discovery Educators for a week of professional development, networking and fun, you have one week left to apply. The application for the DEN National Institute (July 21-25, 2008) and the DEN Leadership Council Institute (July 14-18, 2008) will be open until next Friday, April 11.

Anyone who wants to attend either of the institutes must complete the online application.

More details about the institutes can be found on the blog.

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  1. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    Applied Educational Research Journal (AERJ)
    22 (3) 2009

    Oral History: A Viable Methodology for 21st Century
    Educational Administration Research: National Impact

    Monica G. Williams
    PhD Student in Educational Leadership
    College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Associate Vice President for Development
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System

    David E. Herrington, PhD
    Assistant Professor
    Department Educational Leadership and Counseling
    College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    Central Washington University
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    _______________________________________________________________________
    ABSTRACT

    This article identifies three 21st Century realities that are redefining research in educational administration: 1) the increasing need for relevancy and authenticity in addressing community and school problem solving contexts; 2) the need for a research method that permits the kind of in depth interviewing of knowledgeable individuals with minimal Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversight; and 3) a methodology that can be facilitated by emerging technologies. Oral history has been employed in many disciplines but has seldom been used in educational administration. It offers some promise and the authors suggest possible uses and interpretations of one proposed oral history project and one completed oral history project.
    ______________________________________________________________________________
    Purpose of the Article

    The purpose of this article is to examine oral history interviewing and historical research as a viable research method within the broad family of research methodologies in educational administration and educational leadership. The evolution of research methodology in educational administration has been influenced by changing paradigms, changing needs, increasing institutional Review Board (IRB) oversight, and changing technology. Educational administration research differs from other academic disciplines in that it involves the opportunity to find new and innovative uses for research findings for problem solving and decision making in school settings.

    Research in Educational Administration Undergoing Transformation

    Educational administration research has undergone great transformation during the past century. Business management principles drawn from industry dominated the first half of the 20th Century of educational administration thought. During the 1950’s and 1960’s various social science methods and concepts shaped a new generation of educational administration thought and research methodology (Campbell, Fleming, Newell & Bennion, 1987; Murphy, 2003, Fall). By the late 1980’s business and social science methodologies were supplemented though not replaced by qualitative methods drawn from anthropology. Action research fills yet another educational administration research niche. It places less emphasis on formal theoretical constructs while focusing on authentic, campus-based data gathering, and problem-solving. This continuing growth in acceptance of research methodologies from other disciplines was described by Campbell, et al:

    Educational administration is an applied field rather than an academic discipline. It does not draw upon a single body of literature nor use a single set of scholarly tools…an applied field must maintain a vital concern not only with the extension of knowledge but also with the improvement of practice…Similarly…an applied field must be concerned with problems in their totality – drawing on the methods of many disciplines. (1987, p. 3)

    Not all influences on educational administration research in the 21st Century have been methodological. A national increase in Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversight has greatly influenced educational administration research (Herrington & Kritsonis, 2006). There remains great variance among universities regarding the extent to which educational research is subject to IRB oversight. Some universities exempt educational studies from IRB oversight completely, especially those studies that were intended to examine quality improvement in educational institutions or action research used for classroom instruction. Some universities were requiring complete reviews of every aspect of research regardless of methodology or intended uses of the data. Navigating the maze of IRB restrictions at some institutions has led to avoidance of some research methodologies or populations and in some cases resulted in diminished research activity altogether (Herrington & Kritsonis, 2006).
    Technology has made most forms of research far more convenient and achievable. For example more user-friendly Windows or UNIX based statistical software programs such as Stat-Pac, (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and SAS have replaced hand-calculations, data punchcard readers, and mainframe versions of the statistical software. Qualitative researchers have access to coding software such as HyperRESEARCH 2.6, NVIVO 7, computer-assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (QAQDAS 07) to assist with high volume qualitative data coding capabilities. Audio and video recording equipment, imaging equipment, and related software continue to be developed for oral history recording, however, analog recordings continue to be preferred by most oral history professionals.
    The challenge for educational researchers in the 21st Century is to select a methodology that can provide a relevant context for examining education issues within specific contexts that are reliably and accurately preserved. The methodology must also yield a study that is achievable within a reasonable time frame, is affordable, and must satisfy ethical requirements or minimize the need for IRB scrutiny.

    A Methodology-in-Waiting

    Charlton (1985) defined oral history as “the recording and preserving of planned interviews with selected persons able to narrate recollected memory and thereby aid the reconstruction of the past” (p.2). Baum (1978) defined oral history as:

    1. a tape recorded interview, or interviews, in question-and-answer format,
    2. conducted by an interview who has some, and preferably the more the better, knowledge of the subject to be discussed,
    3. with a knowledgeable interview, someone who knows whereof he or she speaks from personal participation or observation (sometimes we allow a second-hand account),
    4. subjects’ of historical [or community] interest…
    5. accessible, eventually, in tapes and/or transcripts to a broad spectrum of researchers. (pp. 389-390)

    The value of oral history for educational researchers and practitioners is found in the background that can be provided by credible participants who are able to enrich understandings of the immediate problem-solving context or who can draw parallels with other contexts. Sometimes dramatic events or significant phenomena require giving voice to otherwise silent observers or constituencies that know the true nature of the problem of interest, but who have never been consulted by historians or decision makers. For example, ethnographic shifts in recent years have created major cultural divides in communities and schools that challenge long held assumptions of teachers and administrators regarding their client student populations.
    An example is found in formerly rural/now suburban high school campus that in 1995-2004 comparison revealed the following demographic changes in students and teachers. In 1995 only 17 percent of the students of this inner city campus were Hispanic, 15 percent were African American, 65 percent of students were Anglo. The teacher demographic representations were similar. Ten years later 67 percent of the students were Hispanic, 17 percent were African American, but only 16 of the students were Anglo. The teacher demographics remained relatively unchanged over the same 10 years.
    Conversations with parents, teachers, and administrators reveals that the unexpected demographic gaps that occurred during the preceding ten year period had resulted in an increase of racial tensions wherein teachers/student and teacher/parent conflicts occuring. The achievement of Hispanic students continued a downward spiral, attendance and dropouts were increasing, and disciplinary alternative educational placements were soaring. These realities placed the district in jeopardy of losing its standing based on statewide criteria and NCLB standards. This was a phenomenon that could be documented through oral history interviews and the results made available as a case for other districts. In this case a number of interventions might be possible in the short run but a comprehensive and effectively planned longer term plan informed by carefully conducted oral histories would provide some valuable context and community history of the community that can provide answers to working with all parties affected by the problem.
    Another example is the fact that during the 1960’s and 1970’s the educational and experiential cornerstones for the first generation of Mexican-American college and university presidents and chancellors in the state of Texas and the nation were being established within an educational and cultural environment of South Texas that was hostile to the aspirations and future advancement of Latinos (Herrington, 1993, August). What can be learned about the education and mentoring experiences of these highly successful individuals would be invaluable to educators and other minority individuals making career and education decisions.
    These two very real scenarios though unrelated have some connectedness. There are lessons that the teachers and administrators at the high school undergoing dramatic demographic shifts (study proposed but not yet conducted) could learn from the South Texas study of successful Hispanic students who grew up in communities that 30 and 40 years earlier resembled their current demographic and cultural realities. Communities that are just beginning to face the realities of permanently altered demographic landscapes can learn a great deal from their South Texas predecessors, precisely because those experiences have been previously recorded and transcribed for future reference (Herrington, 1993, August). The thoughts and feelings of these successful Hispanic individuals regarding their experiences, parents, teachers, and mentors (many of whom were Anglo as well as Hispanic) are eloquently recorded and transcribed for posterity. Their stories reveal personal strategies and significant persons who once extended a helping hand.
    In both of these cases, oral history methodology presents perhaps the only way to preserve otherwise unobtainable information. Concerning oral history Hoffman (1974) wrote:

    Its most important advantage…is that it makes possible the preservation of life experience of persons who do not have the …leisure to write their memoirs…Interviews with people who have been foot soldiers in various important movements of social change but have heretofore been unrecorded may now be preserved and hence their impact assessed. (p. 26)

    The Role of History in Educational Reform

    Scholars have identified several uses for history in educational research. History can be instrumental in effecting social reform, predicting future trends, or in influencing practice through the training of educators (Borg & Gall, 1983). Comparing the work of historian to that of psychotherapist Borg, et al noted that history has a particularly liberating function for educators:

    To Freud, neurosis is the failure to escape the past, the burden on one’s history. What is repressed returns distorted and is eternally reenacted. The psychotherapist’s task is to help the patient reconstruct the past. In this respect the historian’s goal resembles that of the therapist – to liberate us from the burden of the past by helping us to understand it. (p. 802)

    It is our common understanding of history and the ability to learn from our shared past that distinguishes humans from all other creatures. Wector (1957, August) wrote:

    Chimpanzee with a stack of empty boxes and a banana hanging out of reach soon learns by his own experience. But man alone learns from the experience of others. History makes this possible. In the broadest sense, all that we know is history. More strictly, it is the road map of the past. (p. 24)

    History is our collective memory. The ability to utilize history and extract useful generalizations and theories is uniquely human. Without a record of the past we are left to navigate life’s course without the aid of those who have gone before us.
    In a cogent essay published posthumously, Kennedy (1964, February) provided several reasons for examining the historical record. He noted:

    There is little that is more important…without [history]…[one] stands uncertain and defenseless before the world, knowing neither where he has come from nor where he is going. With such knowledge, he is no longer alone but draws a strength far greater than his own from the cumulative experience of the past and the cumulative vision of the future. (p.3)

    Ethical Oversight of Oral History
    And Technological Considerations

    Historical research and particularly oral history interviewing provides context and clear precedents that can be explored and considered for educational policy as well as practice. Educational researchers and IRB board members might wince at the notion of preserving recorded interviews. Such practice seems to contradict ethical provisions safeguarding anonymity of research subjects. This is where the difference between oral history interviewing and other methodologies is important. Unlike any other discipline or methodology, oral history interviewing requires the spoken words of a specifically named individual connected in time and place by means of recording data on audio tapes, video tapes, images, documents, and transcripts preserved so as to be accessible for historical verification (Dunaway, D.K. & Baum, 1984).
    To address this ethics concern, the Organization of American Historians (OAH) and the Oral History Society (OHS) in October 2003 successfully petitioned the U.S. Office for Human Research Protection (OHRP), part of the Department of Health and Human Services, for a special ruling on oral history research interviewing. They were especially concerned with oral history projects that do not involve the type of research defined by HHS regulations. It was determined that some oral history projects may not fall under the “Common Rule” (45 CFR, part 46) that define research as “a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.” According to the Organization of Oral Historians (2003, November):

    This type of research involves standard questionnaires with large samples of individuals who remain anonymous, not the open-ended interviews with identifiable individuals who give their interviews with ‘informed consent’ that characterizes oral history. Only those oral history projects that conform to the regulatory definition of research will now need to submit their research protocols for IRB review. (p. 17)

    An advantage of the oral history interview, therefore, if the study is carefully designed, is that IRB oversight has become far less restrictive than for other methodologies.

    Concluding Remarks

    In conclusion, oral history methodology is technology-intensive. Emerging 21st Century technologies as well as existing technologies continue to simplify and broaden the capabilities of the oral historian, both for gathering information and presenting information in a variety of formats. Digitizing voice, image, video, and text materials have greatly reduced the processing and production time for producing and presenting oral history findings.
    Finally, oral history interviewing, more than ever before, has enormous potential for giving voice to silent but important players within the arenas of social change – including community and school. In order make any further changes in our school systems educational leaders and researchers have got to find ways to hear these previously unheard voices. Well designed studies that seek out these voices of individuals who have given informed consent can provide historically and contextually rich information specific to time and place with minimal IRB oversight. Finally, technology is rapidly expanding the repertoire of formats for archiving and presenting very useful and usable knowledge to drive school improvement.

    References

    Baum, W.K. (1978). The expanding role of the librarian in oral history. Library Lectures,
    6, 33-43. In Dunaway, D.K. & Baum, W.K. (Eds.), Oral history: An interdisciplinary anthology pp. 387-406). Nashville, TN: American Association for State and Local History and the Oral History Association.
    Borg, W.R. & Gall, M.D. (1983). Educational research (4th ed.). New York: Longman.
    Campbell, R.F., Fleming, T., Newell, L.J. & Bennion, J.W. (1987). A history of thought
    and practice in educational administration. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Charlton, T.C. (1985). Oral history for Texans (2nd ed.). Austin, Texas: Texas Historical
    Commission.
    Dunaway, D.K. & Baum (1984). Oral history: An interdisciplinary anthology. Nashville,
    TN: American Association for State and Local History and the Oral History Assocociation.
    Herrington, D. E. (1993). Barriers, influences, and leadership challenges of selected
    Mexican-American upper level administrators in South Texas public higher education, 1970 to 1990. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M Universi
    Herrington, D.E. & Kritsonis, W. (2006). A national perspective for improving the
    working relationship between educational researchers and Institutional Review Board members. National Forum for Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 1-5.
    Organization of American Historians (2003, November). Oral history excluded from IRB
    review. OAH Newsletter, 31(3), 17.
    Wector, Dixon (1957, August). History and how to write it. American Heritage, 8(5), 24- 27, 87.

    Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS, Houston, Texas. http://www.nationalforum.com

  2. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    Writing for Professional Publication in National Refereed Journals
    California State University, San Bernardino
    April 3, 2008

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University/The Texas A&M University System

    1. Professional reasons for writing for publication
    2. Personal reasons for writing for publication
    3. How real writers behave
    4. Writer’s write for the following reasons
    5. How to get started
    6. What will “sell” the editor on your work?
    7. Formula: Brilliant Ideas + Good Luck + Knowing the Right People = Publication
    8. On scholarly work
    9. Reasons to write and publish journal articles
    10. Writing and publishing journal articles enables you to…
    11. Three basic types of articles: practical – review or theoretical – research
    12. Quantitative Studies
    13. Qualitative Research
    14. On writing books
    15. Four phases of book publishing
    16. Some reasons to write a book
    17. Where does the dollar go after a book is published?
    18. What do editors and reviewers really want?
    19. Earning approval from editors and reviewers
    20. What to remember about bad writing
    21. How to get fired as a reviewer
    22. Publish or perish or teach or impeach
    23. I’ve been rejected many times – should I give up?
    24. In writing, how you read is important
    25. How teachable is writing?
    26. “I can’t seem to tell how my writing is going while I am doing it. Can you help?
    27. Remember your purpose in writing
    28. What differentiates ordinary writing from writing with style
    29. It must get somewhat easier to write, otherwise, how would some authors become
    so prolific?
    30. If writing for publication does not prove to be lucrative, why bother?
    31. Why creative work is worthwhile
    32. Show respect for your writing. It is about what the readers should know. If this puts a strain on a professional relationship, then so be it.
    33. “Why I Write” (Orwell) Sheer egoism, aesthetic enthusiasm, historical impulse, and political purpose.
    34. What really makes an academic write?
    35. The Writer’s Essential Tools – words and the power to face unpleasant facts.
    36. No human activity can sap the strength from body and life from spirit as much as writing in which one doesn’t believe.
    37. “Because it was there.” Edmund Hillary. And with this comment he supplied generations with a ready-made and unanswerable defense for any new undertaking even writing.
    38. Why we write.
    39. Climbing Your Own Mountain
    Please list any other topics you want Dr. Kritsonis to discuss.

    Copyright © 2008 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD – ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

  3. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    25th Year Anniversary of National FORUM Journals
    Founded in 1983
    William Allan Kritsonis’ Contribution to Education

    Arthur L. Petterway, PhD
    Principal
    Houston Independent School District
    Houston, Texas

    ABSTRACT
    This year marks the 25th Year Anniversary of the founding of National FORUM Journals by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. The following snapshot of the career of Dr. Kritsonis is a small tribute to his contribution to education.
    __________________________________________________________________________

    Founder of National FORUM Journals

    Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these academic, scholarly, refereed, peer-reviewed journals.

    Dr. Kritsonis Lectures at the University of Oxford, Oxford, England

    In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.

    Dr. Kritsonis Recognized as Distinguished Alumnus

    In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and
    Professional Studies. Dr. Kritsonis was nominated by alumni, former students, friends,
    faculty, and staff. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors.
    Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have made a positive contribution to society. For

    the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington
    University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of “America’s Best Colleges.”

    Educational Background

    Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

    Professional Experience

    Dr. Kritsonis began his career as a teacher. He has served education as a principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.

    Books – Articles – Lectures – Workshops

    Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts seminars and workshops on a variety of topics. He is author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. His popular book SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: The Art of Survival is scheduled for its fourth edition. He is the author of the textbook William Kritsonis, PhD on Schooling that is used by many professors at colleges and universities throughout the nation and abroad.
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis’ version of the book of Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (858 pages) was published in the United States of America in cooperation with partial financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005). The book is the product of a collaborative twenty-four year effort started in 1978 with the late Dr. Philip H. Phenix. Dr. Kritsonis was in continuous communication with Dr. Phenix until his death in 2002.
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was the lead author of the textbook Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics. The text provides practical content knowledge in research for graduate students at the doctoral and master’s levels.
    In 2008, Dr. Kritsonis’ book Non-Renewal of Public School Personnel Contracts: Selected Supreme and District Court Decisions in Accordance with the Due Process of Law was published by The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York.
    Dr. Kritsonis’ seminar and workshop on Writing for Professional Publication has
    been very popular with both professors and practitioners. Persons in attendance generate an
    article to be published in a refereed journal at the national or international levels. Dr. Kritsonis has traveled and lectured throughout the United States and world-wide. Some recent international tours include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Turkey, Italy, Greece,

    Monte Carlo, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland,
    Germany, and many more.

    Founder of National FORUM Journals – Over 4,000 Professors Published

    Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these refereed, peer-reviewed periodicals. In 1983, he founded the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision – now acclaimed by many as the United States’ leading recognized scholarly academic refereed journal in educational administration, leadership, and supervision.
    In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis founded the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of applied educational researchers world-wide with those of practitioners in education. He founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, National FORUM of Special Education Journal, National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, and the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. In 1997, he established the Online Journal Division of National FORUM Journals that publishes academic scholarly refereed articles daily on the website: http://www.nationalforum.com. Over 600 professors have published online. In January 2007, Dr. Kritsonis established the National Journal: Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools.

    Professorial Roles

    Dr. Kritsonis has served in professorial roles at Central Washington University, Washington; Salisbury State University, Maryland; Northwestern State University, Louisiana; McNeese State University, Louisiana; and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge in the Department of Administrative and Foundational Services.
    In 2006, Dr. Kritsonis published two articles in the Two-Volume Set of the Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration published by SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. He is a National Reviewer for the Journal of Research on Leadership, University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA).
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was invited to write a history and philosophy of education for the ABC-CLIO Encyclopedia of World History.
    Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the newly established PhD Program in Educational Leadership. Dr. Kritsonis taught the Inaugural class session in the doctoral program at the start of the fall 2004 academic year. In October 2006, Dr. Kritsonis chaired the first doctoral student to earn a PhD in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University. He lives in Houston, Texas.

  4. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    In 2005, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis lectured at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.

    Dr. Kritsonis Recognized as Distinguished Alumnus

    In 2004, Dr. Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and Professional Studies. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors. Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have a positive contribution to society. For the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of “America’s Best Colleges.”

    Educational Background

    Dr. Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he served as a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

    Professional Experience

    Dr. Kritsonis began his career as a teacher. He has served education as a principal, superintendent of schools, director of field experiences and student teaching, consultant, invited guest professor, author, editor, and publisher. He has earned tenure at the highest academic rank as a professor at two major universities.

    Founder of National FORUM Journals – Over 4,000 Professors Published

    Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. These periodicals represent a group of highly respected academic professional journals. Over 4,000 authors in higher education have been published in these refereed, peer-evaluated, blind-reviewed, juried academic scholarly journals. In 1983, he founded the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal recognized by many as the United States’ leading nationally recognized scholarly academic refereed journal in educational administration and supervision.
    In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis founded the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal (National FORUM AERJ) whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of researchers worldwide with those of practitioners. In subsequent years he founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, National FORUM of Special Education Journal, National FORUM Multicultural Issues Journal, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity. In 2005, he established the International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, and the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are completing course work in their doctoral programs. In 1997, he established the Online Journal Division of NATONAL FORUM JOURNALS that publishes articles daily following the completion of a rigorous national refereeing process. Over 500 professors have published online. Over 250,000 readers visit the website yearly at: http://www.nationalforum.com

    Books – Articles – Lecturers – Workshops

    Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts workshops and seminars on a variety of topics. He conducts workshops on writing for professional publication in refereed journals in education. He is author or coauthor of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. His popular book SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: The Art of Survival is now scheduled for its fourth edition. His textbook William Kritsonis, PhD on SCHOOLING is used by many colleagues at colleges and universities throughout the nation.
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis’ version of the book of Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (858 pages) was published in the United States of America in cooperation with partial financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005). The book is the product of a collaborative twenty-four year effort started in 1978 with Dr. Philip H. Phenix. Dr. Kritsonis was in continuous communication with Dr. Phenix until his death in 2002.
    In 2006, Dr. Kritsonis published two articles in the Two-Volume Set of the Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration published by SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. He is a National Reviewer for the Journal of Research on Leadership, University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA).
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was invited to write a history and philosophy of education for the ABC-CLIO Encyclopedia of World History.

    International Travel

    Dr. Kritsonis has traveled internationally. Some recent international tours include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Turkey, Italy, Greece, Monte Carlo, Spain, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland, Germany, and many more.

    Professorial Roles

    Dr. Kritsonis has served in professorial roles at Central Washington University, Washington; Salisbury State University, Maryland; Northwestern State University, Louisiana; McNeese State University, Louisiana; Wright State University, Ohio; and Louisiana State University (LSU) at Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
    Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University a Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the newly established Doctor of Philosophy Program in Educational Leadership in the Whitlowe R. Green College of Education. Dr. Kritsonis taught the Inaugural class session in the PhD program at the start of the fall 2004 academic year. In October, 2006, Dr. Kritsonis chaired the first student to earn a PhD in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University. He lives in Houston, Texas.

    ______________________________________________________________________________
    BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

    Business Address: Professor (Tenured)
    Prairie View A&M University
    Doctor of Philosophy Program in Educational Leadership
    College of Education
    Prairie View, TX 77446
    Member of the Texas A&M University System

    Personal Data: Height: 5’5”
    Weight: 152 lbs.
    Citizenship: United States

    Iowa Credentials: Teacher, Life
    Elementary Principal and Supervisor, Life
    Superintendent, County and Local

    Washington Credentials: Teacher, Life
    Elementary and Secondary Principal, Life
    Superintendent, County and Local

    Louisiana Credentials: Teacher, Life
    Elementary and Secondary Principal
    Superintendent

    National Teacher Passed Educational Leadership: Administration Supervision, 1989
    Examination (NTE) Passed Education in the Elementary School, 1989

    Certified Distance Successfully completed requirements for the Distance Education
    Education Professional Certification Program co-sponsored by The Center for Distance Learning Research and Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, Awarded November 19, 1989.

    Approved/Funded Developed and presented a proposal to the Technological Advancements for Students Committee, representing the Department of Educational Leadership & Instructional Technology at McNeese State University for a Document Camera for use in regular classrooms and possibly in distance learning/compressed video settings. Funded: $126,957.19.

    _____________________________________________________________________________
    EDUCATIONAL TRAINING

    PhD 1976
    ADMINSTRATION THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
    SUPERVISION IOWA CITY, IOWA
    CURRICULUM

    M.Ed 1971
    ADMINISTRATION SEATTLE PACIFIC UNIVERSITY
    CURRICULUM SEATTLE, WASHINGTON

    B.A. 1969
    SOCIAL SCIENCES CENTRAL WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
    GENERAL EDUCATION ELLENSBURG, WASHINGTON

    ______________________________________________________________________________
    RECENT FOREIGN TRAVEL

    2000 – Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania
    1998 – Turkey, Italy, Greece, Monte Carlo, Spain
    1997 – England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland, Germany

    ______________________________________________________________________________
    PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

    2004 – Present PROFESSOR (Tenured)
    Prairie View A&M University
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View, Texas 77446
    (Member of the Texas A&M University System)

    DISTINGUISHED ALUMNUS (2004)
    Central Washington University
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    Ellensburg, Washington

    VISITING LECTURER (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England

    Taught the Inaugural class in the newly established Doctor of Philosophy
    Program in the Educational Leadership (Fall, 2004). Dissertation Chair of
    first recipient of PhD. Student graduated in fall, 2006.

    PhD Courses Taught at PVAMU
    EDUL 7003 Fundamental Components of Strategic Thinking
    EDUL 7033 Dynamics of Leadership
    EDUL 7043 Organizational Development and Change
    EDUL 7063 Philosophy of Leadership
    EDUL 7083 Internship – Superintendent/Principal/Higher Education
    EDUL 7253 Ethical Decision Making
    EDUL 7263 Critical Issues in Educational Leadership
    EDUL 7273 Human Resources Management
    EDUL 7333 Grant Writing
    EDUL 8003 Dissertation

    Other Graduate Level Courses Taught at PVAMU
    ADMIN 5513 Superintendent Internship
    ADMN 5003 Fundamentals of School Administration
    ADMN 5013 Theory, Practice and Research
    ADMN 5033 School Business Management
    ADMN 5043 The School Principalship
    ADMN 5053 Administration of Special Programs
    ADMN 5083 Special Topics in Educational Administration
    ADMN 5153 Research
    CNSL 5163 Research

    Member, (Elected by the Faculty) Promotion and Tenure Committee, Prairie View A&M University, Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX. 2004 – Present

    Member, (Appointed by the Dean of The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education) College of Education Advisory Committee on Post-Tenure Review, Prairie View A&M University, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX.. 2006 – Present

    Certification of Completion – The NIH Office of Human Subjects Research certifies that William Kritsonis successfully completed the National Institutes of Health Web-based training course “Protecting Human Research Participants”. Date: 03/09/2008
    Certification Number: 5765.

    Faculty Mentor to New PhD Doctoral Faculty, 2007 – Present – Dr. Tyrone Tanner.

    Member, (Appointed by the Dean of The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education) Holmes Partnership Council, Prairie View A&M University, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX. 2006 – Present

    Member, (Appointed by the Dean of The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education) Task Force
    On Grants and External Funding, Prairie View A&M University, The Whitlowe R. Green
    College of Education, Member of the Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX. 2004-Present

    Since joining the doctoral faculty of PVAMU, Dr. Kritsonis has have helped colleagues publish articles at the national and international levels in refereed, peer-reviewed, juried, academic professional journals. Over 300 indexed in ERIC. Teach courses in the superintendent, principal and human resources certification and preparation programs.

  5. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    17603 Bending Post Drive
    Houston, TX 77093

    (281) 550-5700 Home
    (832) 483-7889 Cell
    williamkritsonis@yahoo.com

    Professor
    Doctor of Philosophy Program in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University
    (Member of the Texas A&M University System)
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View, Texas 77446

    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    Central Washington University
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    Ellensburg, Washington

    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    Oriel College
    University of Oxford
    Oxford, England

    Editor-in-Chief
    NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS
    Founded 1983

    Over 4,000 professors in higher education have published in NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS
    Over 250,000 Guests Visit Our Website Yearly at http://www.nationalforum.com

    PhD, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, 1976
    M.Ed. Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, Washington, 1971
    B.A. Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington
    Visiting Scholar, Columbia University, Teachers College, New York, 1981

  6. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal
    26 (4) 2009

    National Implications: Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning for a Post-Modernistic Approach to Affecting Change in Special Education

    Debbie Watkins
    PhD Student in Educational Leadership
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    Central Washington University
    College of Education and Professional Studies

    ABSTRACT
    Current trends in Special Education have been prescribed through federal legislation mandates such as the “Individuals with Disability Act” (IDEA) and the “No Child Left Behind Act.” However, despite legislative agendas intended to spur academic achievement with students with disabilities, many students designated as Special Education students with a learning disability are actually receiving an inferior education and falling behind the educational progress of their peers, even though most students with learning disabilities have average intelligence. The current educational system does not promote an avenue to challenge the students to their full academic potential. By applying postmodern techniques to the field of special education, new paradigms for success and achievement can be achieved by all students preprogrammed to believe that they can never achieve more than the status-quo modernists have proposed they can achieve and accomplish. Utilizing the theoretical foundations and structure of the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning as a post modernistic model of excellence for Special Education, sufficient strides in educational achievement can be made for all students labeled as special needs and learning disabled students.
    Note: Special note of gratitude to Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith for her assistance in getting this article published. See: http://www.nationalforum.com
    ______________________________________________________________________

    Introduction

    “The school leaders of the twenty-first century must have knowledge and understanding of the purpose of education and the role of leadership in modern society as well as various ethical frameworks and perspectives on ethics, the values of the diversschool community, professional codes of ethics, and the philosophy and history of education” (Ubben, Hughes & Norris, 2001, p. 1). By challenging our students and by opening up new paradigms for educational success, not only will the individual student be positively affected, but our nation will celebrate the successes of our young people. “Schools are the reflections of a nation. Education affects each nation’s society and determines the status of the masses, as well as the status of the individuals” (Kritsonis, 2002, p. 97).
    Many of the students who could be categorized as “least responsive” and “at-risk” of failure have been placed in most cases under the auscipicious management of the Special Education department which is unfortunately tied to monstrous federal, state, and local bureaucracies that potentially weakens the students resolve and purpose to achieve more than the system has mandated that they can achieve.
    While Special Education services for some students can actually provide for a better and more productive life, some students, especially those of average intelligence, have in many cases been labeled as underachievers and the students in many cases have bought into this Pygmalion effect and have reflected educational progress in line with the expectations that educational leaders have placed upon them.

    Purpose of the Article

    The purpose of this article is to show how the field of educational administration has been influenced by a modernist agenda which has hindered the progress of Special Education students in that lowered expectations have created an attitude of academic complacency for many students deemed as learning disabled in today’s Special Education system. By proposing a new post modernistic agenda for learning, special education students can succeed to new levels of academic achievement and success. Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning as a theoretical framework for success, a post modernistic approach to education can be developed that can challenge and inspire even the most reluctant student learner.

    The Battleground in Educational Administration

    The battleground in educational administration lies between two philosophical basis, modernism and postmodernism. The modernistic train of thought is one of bureaucracy and the innate attitude that “one-size” fits all in educational administration and implantation of educational protocol and learning curricula for students within the confines of the educational community.
    Students who learn that the academic system allows irresponsibility and excuse-driven mentalities will potentially bring these same lackadaisical ideas to the workplace. Regardless of the career path chosen, men and women in the workforce are expected to be responsible, reliable, and dedicated employees to their communities. If these “virtues” of the economic workplace have not been taught and grasped in the educational community, it is likely that future production in our country will go down drastically. Shoddiness in the workplace reflects indifference and an uncaring attitude of the employee toward the employer. When students are allowed to “get by” with just the basics, or sometimes even less than the basic requirements other high school students, they are programmed to repeat this “accepted” high school behavior in the work force.

    The Realities of a “Top-Down” Modernistic
    Management System in Special Education

    1. Students are labeled.
    2. Expectations for students are reduced, even if the student is capable of high levels of achievement in the classroom.
    3. Low expectations produce low performance.
    4. Students begin to view themselves as dumb, stupid or incapable when the reality in many cases is that these same students can become highly successful in the academic classroom and in some cases are able to exceed academic goals and
    and standards set for the average or above average regular education student

    The Modernistic Approach to Special Education Administration

    A one-size fits all program of Special Education services has been handed down to educational administrators who are bound by law to uphold the requirements of law found in legal bounds as recorded in the “No Child Left Behind Act” and the IDEA laws which have set boundaries and guidelines for the implementation of Special Education services for all school age students between the ages 3 to 21. Although the rhetoric for Special Education reform sounds progressive and promising, the reality is that the modernistic approach to Special Education is not challenging our students to their full potential and therefore, our students are not being fully educated and trained for their future vocations and life’s work.

    The “Ivory Tower” Theory of Special Education

    1. If classroom accommodations are mandated for each student, “no child will be left behind.”
    2. Special Education federal laws and mandates are appropriate for all schools and organizations serving the educational needs of Special Education student.
    3. Individualized IEP’s will provide needed educational services for all students under the umbrella and qualifications of a Special Education student.
    4. There is one set of prescribed standards that can be utilized for the success of all children.
    5. Special Education students need to be pampered and remediated and not required to meet all of the standards and goals of general education students.
    6. The ARD committee can make the best educational decision for the needs of the student’s individualized educational needs and behavior components.

    Taylorism and De-skilling and Depersonalization of the Special Education Student

    Special Education services for struggling, low performing students of average intelligence is based on a pre-described discrepancy model. If it is determined that a student’s intelligence is within a normal or near normal range, but the student is performing below acceptable levels in certain subjects, the student is determined to have a learning disability. However, current research suggests many students who have been “diagnosed” with a learning disability in fact “have dyspedagogia, a history of inadequate instruction most notably in reading and language arts or math, or have not had basic behavior moral supports or social adjustments” (McLaughlin & Nolet, 2004, p. 11).
    . At the time of identification as a Special Education student, mandated federal laws and requirements go into effect and a student is given an IEP (Individualized Education Plan) as a “cure-all” for the educational dilemmas the student has incurred up until that time. In many districts IEP’s are watered down versions of academic mandates that hinder a student from ever reaching his or her academic potential. For example, an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for a 10th grade high school student containing specific subject matter goals for an entire year might read:

    1. The student will be able to name three proponents of chemical reactions with 70% accuracy.
    2. The student will demonstrate mastery of the periodic table by creating a notebook of chemical names and symbols with 70% accuracy.
    3. The student will construct a poster of Newton’s Three Laws of Motion with 70% accuracy.

    It is obvious that when Special Education law allows for a watered down version of the curriculum to be acceptable for students who are otherwise bright and intelligent, the overall academic climate and achievement level of the Special Education student will ultimately be diminished.
    The IEP is in many ways similar to the job simplification model employed by Frederick Taylor. “Frederick Taylor employed the tactic of job simplification known as deskilling (Hardy and Clegg, 1996, p. 625). Job simplication, akin to the simplification of academic skills noted and described in student Individualized Education Plans, reduces a job to its “lowest common denominators” (Fenwick, 2003, p. 116). Taylorism created a deskilled workforce that could be hired at a lower wage and could be replaced easily from a large pool of under-prepared and under-trained work forces.
    Unfortunately, in our educational system today, Special Education students are being “de-skilled” through low expectations by teachers, administrators, parents, and governmental bureaucrats. Just because a student appears to struggle in a particular area, it does not mean that genius does not exist in the Special Education student. With effort, effective teaching, and a creative curriculum, it is possible that students with learning disabilities can “exceed expectations” when given the right educational instruction and encouragement.
    The modernistic approach to providing one way and process for prescribing an educational plan for a student is currently not working to the benefit of our special education students and in many ways is hindering their success in their academic and career aspirations. To combat the modernistic Taylorism bureaucratic mentality in the area of Special Education, a new and more expanded paradigm needs to be established in order to facilitate a higher order of thinking and learning for America’s public education school system.

    The “Einstein” Factor in Education

    One student labeled as inferior, dull, and educationally lifeless overcame the pronouncements of failure and defeat and became known as one of the greatest scientific mind of all times. This student was Albert Einstein. At a young age, his teacher advised his parents to take him home in that he was dull and listless and not able to learn. His genius was not recognized by the educational bureaucratic status quo. However, fortunately for the world we live in, Albert Einstein was not ultimately hindered by the misguided elementary teacher who pronounced an educational death sentence on Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein did not stay within the bureaucratic expectations of his educational mentors. Instead, he burst forth with ambition, genius, and creativity that literally helped to revitalize and theoretically change the scientific world forever.
    Today’s scientific bureaucracy would not have allowed Einstein’s genius to grow. However, Einstein’s life is a testament to the fact that boundaries and pre-described predictions of failure and loss in one’s life can be overcome. Einstein remains a model of hope and encouragement to all students who struggle but who want to achieve greatness and legitimacy in their life’s work and vocation.
    In our Special Education classrooms and student populations, there are doctors, and lawyers, mechanics, and teachers. Their potential will never be realized unless the educational system that imprisons them to a state of low achievement is dramatically changed.

    Overlooking Potential

    When a student is designated with a learning disability, many times his or her potential is overlooked or discounted. An example of how even a potential king was discounted and overlooked can be found in the story of King David. A king was needed for Israel. Under Judean law, it was the responsibility of God’s prophet to identify and anoint the new king for service. When the prophet came to David’s home, the best looking and “most gifted” sons were brought before the prophet. However, he knew the king was not among the sons presented. It was not until he met David that he knew Israel’s king had been found. It is possible that in the field of special education, students with great potential will go unrecognized and will continue to be served with minimal educational strategies and lowered expectations for success.

    A New Postmodern Approach to the Field of Special Education

    The postmodernist approach to Special Education allows the educator and educational administrator to go beyond the bounds of accepted traditional ways of educating and training the minds of young students. No child can be considered a failure who has the potential to think, create, and explore. New educational paradigms and boundaries for educational leadership can be expanded through developing a wider and more theoretical basis for learning and leadership that will greatly benefit our students, faculty, and staff not only now, but will surely influence future generations as well who learn the expansive power of the search for knowledge and wisdom in the educational environment.
    In order to change the paradigms of a failed system, there must be a new and broadened educational plan that will meet the needs of a diverse group of students who within themselves have the potential of genius, but left to the auspiciousness of a bureaucratic structure, will never realize their full potential.

    Developing a New Theoretical Framework for Special Education

    “There can be no claim to support a knowledge base for a profession without a bonda fide theoretical framework to define and support the derivative professional practice” (Fenwick, 2003, p. 3). A post modernistic approach to Special Education based on the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning by William A. Kritsonis, PhD, offers a structure for new avenues in educational administration based on creative and innovative techniques applicable to all areas of educational innovation and techniques.
    “Postmodernism is about constructing a way of looking at the world of ideas, concepts, and systems of thought through the historicity of context and the shifting nature of linguistic meaning and symbols as they are manifested in discursive practices which run through educational administration and related fields” (English, 2003, p. 3). A theoretical basis to opening the doors of creative thought and application to the fields of educational administration can be found through the tenets and philosophies of the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning viewed through the telescopic view of the challenges nd applications of postmodernism in the world of educational administration and leadership.

    Meaning Through the Scope of Human Nature

    In the context of human learning, many fail to realize the connection of the wide body of knowledge available in the educational community as compared to the real world lives of normal, everyday people. However, not all philosophies of educational leadership are in agreement that there is more than one way to accomplish a goal or maxim for an organization. It is the educator’s job to bring about the focus of meaning into parity with the everyday lives of the students who are committed and assigned to a particular educational institution and educational society. The educational leader must also be “aware of the enemies of meaning that arise within the human situation and to organize instruction in such a way as to overcome or minimize the threatened meaninglessness” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 55).
    Knowledge, education, and wisdom are complex constructs that defy the one sided operational management technique that limits finding reasonable solutions from the past. “The educator needs to understand human life as a complex of meanings and to know what the various realms of meaning encompass” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 55). The complexity of life supersedes the modernistic notion that there is one right way to accomplish all goals and objectives in the educational community. Postmodernism exploration to the scope and purpose of meaning and education is essential in the ongoing expansion of an educational system that truly meets the needs of the student and one that prepares that student for meaningful and profitable work and contributions throughout the student’s expected life time.
    “Current methods in education have not solved the major sociopolitical and instructional problems of race or class, and they have not reduced the gap between the socioeconomic haves and have notes” (English, 2003, p. 60). Embedded deep within the confines of educational administration has been a modernistic approach to solving the educational dilemmas of our elementary and secondary schools of learning. In the field of Special Education, scientific management, “Taylorism”, and modernistic techniques have taken over the administration of our educational system with no significant evidence of student academic progress or success.
    Federal laws have mandated that all students receiving Special Education services receive a free and appropriate education. The student’s educational goals and needs are then referred to a committee comprised of parents, the student, the administrator, Standardized data and selected testing results relating to a students I.Q. and performance on a limited number of assessments are then used as the main criteria for placing the student in a particular academic pathway. “To confine oneself to making decisions on standardized test data would be to:narrowly circumscribe a set of decisions on a fraction of the actual curriculm being taught within curricular areas being assessed” (Fenwick, 2003, p. 205).
    Postmodernism challenges educators to look beyond standardized testing procedures to see the larger goals and aspirations of a student and then to develop programming conducive to the overall needs of the student. “The administrator’s reliance on “common sense,” his or her antenna about morale, anxiety, and intuition, all necessary ingredients in an administrator’s repertoire, may be lost in the insistence on using only hard data” (English, 2003, p. 205).
    If our country is only as strong as the citizens that inhabit our nation, then it is incumbent upon the educational leadership of our country to change the paradigm of our educational system and to encourage diligence, hard work, and dedication to the goal of acquiring the knowledge and wisdom in the educational realm of everyday life and accomplishment.
    A post modernistic approach to education is to view educational pursuits outside of a simplistic “one way” path to truth and right practices. “The postmodernist approaches theory with the idea that netanarratives (theories) are essential for the establishment of professional practice, but that many theories can contain practices which will prove beneficial to educating children in a variety of settings” (English, 2003, p. 4).
    Inherent to learning is how to connect the art of learning to meaningful discourses in a wide range of academic disciplines in order to fully appreciate the depth and knowledge available to those who search diligently for truth and understanding in a new and systematic approach of learning. Current trends in educational leadership have a modernistic bent which lends itself to one right way of accomplishing a goal or objective. Despite the fact, that it is obvious that our educational system is not meeting the needs of all students, it is incumbent that new and postmodernist approach be taken to change the tide of educational bureaucracy to a system more in tune with student accomplishment, achievement, and success.
    A framework to change the tide of the educational bureaucracy to a more student-centered approach to education can be found in the framework of the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning by William A. Kritsonis, PhD. This framework offers a new look at an old problem. How we educate our children today can chart the course of our nation and future generations for years to come. It is important that a theoretical basis that embraces not only the obvious truths of the educational paradigms, but a system of learning that allows for the development of complex reasoning skills, improved and enhanced communications among peers and educators, and an appreciation of how other areas of educational inquiry can help to broaden and enlighten a student’s educational experience to one of successful discourse, understanding, and application of difficult concepts to areas of education, vocational choice, and political discourse.
    The first step in understanding how the tenets found in the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning can change educational discourse and practice is to first determine what the foundational source of all learning and educational discourse is and how foundational truths in educational leadership can be established to benefit the student, school, and educational community.

    Meaning and Purpose in Education

    Meaning and purpose are essential components of a fruitful and victorious life. Without meaning, purpose, and an ultimate goal, daily tasks can become unbearable. A tenet of many at-risk students is that the work they are required to do in school has no merit, purpose, or meaning for their everyday life and existence. In many instances, these students are correct. Modernistic approaches to education have eliminated the possibility that there may be a better way to conduct our educational system to the benefit of all concerned. Without a foundational purpose, motivating students to work hard, dig deeper into their studies, and to work at challenging projects until their successful fruition, students are unmotivated to dedicate themselves to educational projects and discourse.

    Devising a Postmodern Secondary Curriculum
    Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning

    Secondary education is divided into a segmented, non-connecting consortium of individual classes that begin and end at a particular time with no seeming connection to the other classes taught during disconnected periods throughout the day. The Ways of Knowing Curriculum would teach traditional subjects, but elaborate on the concepts so that the curriculum is fluid and consistent.
    A unique perspective in designing a new curriculum, especially for at-risk students, would be to completely do away with the adage that there are seven or eight classroom periods within the day. Instead of 50 minutes of English, History, Science, and Social Studies, a creative new perspective would be to design a classroom schedule that was made up of creative class periods based on structural concepts found in the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning
    The first class assigned to at-risk students would be that of symbolics. The symbolics class period would be the introduction to the world of ordinary language, mathematics, and nondiscursive symbolic forms of communication. The symbolics class would be foundational and offer the opportunity to the low performing student to truly express what is in their heart and mind in order to facilitate a deeper understanding of the new and vibrant curriculum aimed at in-depth learning, retention and application of information.
    Once a general mastery and understanding of the symbolic structure of ordinary language, mathematics, and nondiscursive symbolic forms is reasonably mastered and understood, the second level of meaning and understanding could be added to the student’s curriculum. Building upon the communication and math skills foundation laid during the student’s introduction to symbolics, empirical study into the world of Physical Science, Biology and the Social Science’s can be added.
    To enhance learning and to expand the curriculum, student who are now working successfully and experiencing a more in-depth knowledge of the curricula can now add the Esthetic realm to their learning and enjoyment of education. The esthetic realm includes music, the visual arts, the arts of movement, and literature.
    Now students embarked in this creative curriculum have involved themselves in a cohesive and congruent path of learning in which all areas of learning can be inter-dependent and therefore a knowledge of the whole enhance the singular study of a particular academic discipline
    The next step in the ladder of success based on the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning curricular is to allow students to embark upon a path of self discovery through the synnoectic realm of personal knowledge. At-risk students many times assume their life and career path will be minimal and that opportunities for true success will not be allotted to them because of their academic success levels or lack thereof in their high school academic careers.
    Synnoetic exploration can allow a student to see his or her potential in the real world of work and productive activity. Students who have had low expectations of themselves, may learn to see themselves as capable, intelligent, and creative human beings. Overcoming administrative labels that may have been placed on the students for years may be difficult to overcome, but once a student has a vision for who he or she can become, the sky truly becomes the limit for their predictive futures.
    After introducing the synnoetic realm of meaning to the student population, the fifth realm of meaning can be added which is that of moral knowledge and the realm of ethics. Unless there is honesty and trust in any endeavor, the final outcome of the work can be tainted and destroyed based on wrong choices and poor ethical decisions.
    The last Realm of Meaning in a postmodern curricula would be that of the synoptic realm involving history, religion, and philosophy. Students can be actively engaged in historical learning by understanding that “history is to engage in an imaginative recreation of the past, the success of which is measured by one’s ability to transcend the preoccupations and presuppositions of the practical present” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 767). Students who bring faith in the classroom have the opportunity to understand and appreciate the “profound mystery of the divine” (Kritsonis, p. 767). And finally, the capstone of the curriculum is to teach students to be able to question “beyond the obvious to the meanings that lie hidden beneath the surface of experience” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 767).
    Changing the curriculum to a high-level, obtainable journey to knowledge and meaning is a unique and truly post modernistic approach to improving our current system of “cut and paste” educational realities and mandates.
    It is obvious that significant change is needed within the educational community. Utilizing the post modernistic approach to education, can challenge educational administrators to think outside of the box and to expand the periphery of their educational vision to truly understand and grasp, that the educational needs of our country require that we produce competetent students who have the will, ability, and desire to dig deeper into learning and to apply their knowledge to the many facets of human endeavor and achievement. Utilizing the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning as a post modernistic curriculum structure, ensures that new and exciting learning can and will take place in classrooms across America that were once staid, ineffective, and unproductive for our students.
    To understand the dynamics of a new curriculum based on new paradigms of educational structure and presentation, it is important to understand each realm of meaning and how it applies to the specialized curriculum outlined above as the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning approach to education.

    Symbolics

    The first realm of meaning important to a new paradigm of learning is in the form of symbolics. Organized experiences can be communicated through either discursive or nondiscursive communication techniques. “The unique mark of being human is the capacity for experiencing meanings” (Kritsonis, 2007,p. 109). Once meanings are experienced, than those meanings can be communicated . “Language is not merely a system of signals in which a property conditioned organism automatically responds. It contains meanings, ideation, or the mental power to form ideas, intervenes between word and act” (Kritsonis,2007, p. 113).
    In the field of educational administration “speech is an intellectual, not a mechanical, activity.” Therefore, great thought should be taken when communicating ideas, mandates, and new philosophies to the educational community. Language provides the venue of communication that allows the free expression of new ideas and possibilities to be communicated to an ever-increasing audience of students, educators, and professional leaders responsible for the implication of high standards and increased productivity in the educational community.
    “Postmodernism is about constructing a way of looking at the world of ideas, concepts and systems of though through the historicity of context and the shifting nature of linguistic meaning and symbols as they are manifested in discursive practices which run through educational administration and related fields” (Fenwick, 2003, p.3). Languages are discursive. This means that language is the vehicle of effective and informational communication techniques. “Nondiscursive symbolic forms are used in all the arts for the expression of feelings, values, commitments, and insights in the domains of personal knowledge, metaphysics, and religion” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 151.1).
    When an educational leader seeks to communicate ideas, utilizing discursive forms of communication allows the communication of “ideas in a consecutive, connected fashion, following the principles of common logic” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 153). When nondiscurve communication techniques are utilized, “the aim is not literal statement, but figurative expression” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 153). Both types of communication are necessary for the educational administrator to employ if he or she is to effectively communicate the needs, goals, and aspirations of an organization to its selected workforce, student body, and educational community.
    It is interesting note, that communication occurs among all species. Discursive communication has been studied among the animal kingdom just as the study has been conducted among human species. “The ‘language’ of honeybees is far more complex than that of the spiders or fiddler crabs. When a forager bee returns to the hive, if it has located a source of food it does it does a dance that communicates certain information about the source to other members of the colony” (Jannedy, Poletto & Weldon, 1994, p. 23).

    Post modernistic Ways of Experiencing New Learning Techniques for At-Risk Students

    Teaching meaning at a different level is a post modernistic view in that it goes far beyond the concept of many educators that it is enough to hear a story, read briefly about the characters, and then answer simplistic one sided questions regarding the content of the material read. “Dante’s Divine Comedy, one of the greatest works in all literature, is an outstanding example of verbal symbolic forms used to present nondiscursive meanings on several levels, ofr cosmic scope and unive3rsal human significance” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 169).
    Educational leaders who challenge the simplistic black and white questioning of material on a simplistic one sided view, will find their students challenged and enlighted when they learn to appreciate “the study of meanings that cannot be expressed by literal uttereance” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 169). A challenge to administrators is to replace negative expectations with positive expectations for student achievement. When a student senses that others see that student in a particular light, a “Pygmalion effect” is inevitable in light of student achievement and success. There are certain non-discursive symbolic representations demonstrated indiscriminately through rules and regulations in the special education venue. An example of how the Pygmalion effect can affect a student’s educational progress and self-esteem in the area of academic success and achievement.

    1. Remedial textbooks that are generic and basic and give otherwise capable students the perception that administrative leaders believe they are incapable of significant learning and achievement.
    2. Individualized plans that reflect to the student that we believe you are incapable of performing tasks equal to those of your peers, even though in reality the “special education” students may be brighter and more intelligent in certain areas of expertise than their regular education friends and classmates.
    3. Lowered expectations for otherwise capable students who carry the special educational label. This mind-set can fallow a student for the rest of his or her life and can influence and direct the course of their entire life including what they do for work and how they are able to support themselves

    The Second Realm of Meaning: Empirics

    “The second realm empirics, includes the sciences of the physical world, of living things, and of man. These sciences provide factual descriptions, generationalizations, and theoretical formulations and explanations that are based upon observation and experimentation in the world of matter, life, mind and society” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 12). Emperics specifically deals with Biology, Physical Science, Psychology, and the Social Sciences. Postmodernism supports the study of all of these subject areas. But in the postmodernism tradition, study in the empirical realm “is about understanding that posture of exclusivity is rejected, that is the idea of their being one right way or one right science or one right method of quiry to pursue truth as it is constructed” (Fenwick, 2003, p. 3).

    The Third Realm: Esthetics

    “The third realm, esthetics, contains the various arts, such as music, the visual arts, the arts of movement, and literature. Meanings in this realm are concerned with the contemplative perception of particular significant things as unique objectifications of ideated subjectivies” (Kritsonis, p. 12). Expanding the curriculum to encompass a wide knowledge of the esthetical nature of all learning can be part of an exciting agenda inline with postmodernism’s ideas, goals and values. Students can be taught to see the world through the arts, music, and literature and a more-multi-faceted venue thus allowing for greater breadth of knowledge and cohesiveness in the educational process. Teaching a student to interact and acknowledge how the esthetical works related to learning can be beneficial to the learning process is an important facet of a student’s overall learning process and experience. “The objective world is therefore intimately bound to the eyes of the beholder and his or her politics, culture, language, and conceptual-affective awareness state, i.e., consciousness” (English, 2003, p.14). The author of Inner Visions and Exploration of Art and the Brain has stated that the brain is “no mere passive chronicler of the external physical reality but an active participant in generating the visual image, according to its own rules and programs” (Zeki, 1999, pp. 1-14)

    The Fourth Realm: Synnoetics

    “The fourth realm, synnoetics, embraces what Michael Polanyl calls “Personal knowledge” and Martin Buber the “I-Thou” relation” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 12). In the synnotic realm, the application of “personal or relational knowledge is concrete, direct, and existential. It may apply to other persons, to oneself, or even to things” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 12).
    When students are given the opportunity to explore the ramifications of personal knowledge in areas related to their educational and vocational careers, synnoetic knowledge can be extremely beneficial to the individual student and ultimately to society itself.
    An example of how the application of synnoetic structures in an individual’s education can affect educational and career outcomes can be seen in the following story about a young girl’s struggle for self-realization and accomplishment. This true story began in the Soviet Union when a young girl was deemed to be dull and uneducable.
    Under the realm of communism in the Soviet Union, student educational choice did not exist. Under the communist regime, a student’s future was decided at a young age. You were placed either in a subservient career path, or you were elevated to a professional level of education which would allow you to have a more fulfilling and purposeful career.
    A case in point, is the story of a young girl who was destined to be a janitor and custodial work for the rest of her life. At a young age, her educational path was chosen for her. However, her parents moved to the United States. Once in the United States, this young girl began breaking through the barriers of her past, and chose a new direction for her life. Through her ability to recognize that her talents and abilities exceeded those pronounced upon her b the Soviet regime, this young girl was able to overcome a destiny far below her own abilities and aspire to greatness utilizing her synnoetic understanding of her own personal strengths and attributes. Today she is a medical doctor, successful and fulfilled in her work and vocational aspirations.
    In the United States, we are also guilty of labeling students at a very early age.
    There are two extremes of designated labels that we tend to place on our students. The fortunate students are labeled “gifted and talented.” For these students there are creative programming options, new ways of learning and doing, and an ever increasing opportunity for expanding the boundaries of their intellect and creativity.
    For less fortunate students, the label affixed that of “learning disabled” and in need of Special Education. The real life implication of this type of labeling is that we as the bureaucracy have now confined you to expectations of low achievement, lackadaisical work, minimal requirements, and bureaucratic structures that will hinder you from contributing to society and your fullest potential. Special Education in many school systems is simply a place to bureaucratically place students who do not fit the mode of a mainstream educational learner.

    The Fifth Realm: Ethics (Moral Knowledge)

    “Moral teaching, like instruction in personal relations, is plagued by unimaginative practicality and obviousness” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 766). When students are truly taught to engage in ethical discourse and discussion, “authentic moral meanings are reestablished only when the extraordinary mystery of unconditional obligation is recognized and when the secret inward claim of conscience is reinforced by the consideration of moral dilemmas where the easy justifications of prudence and custom do not suffice” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 766).
    Educational administrators have the responsibility to work toward setting high standards of morality and ethical efficiency in the workplace. The predecessor of postmodernism often overlooked the relevance of moral knowledge in the workplace. “Modernism has depersonalized and dehumanized schools and the leaders who inhabit them by robbing them of any voice of morality or moral values” (English, p. 29). Postmodernism recognizes that “the twenty-first century will have to recover a vision of man being inherent moral value and moral agency” (Eberly, 1995, p. 10).

    The Sixth Realm: Synoptics

    “The sixth realm, synoptics, refers to the meanings that are comprehensively integrative. This realm includes history, religion, and philosophy. These disciplines combine empirical, esthetic, and synnoetic meanings into coherent wholes” (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 13). They synoptic realm includes the historical, religious, and philosophical studies of man’s search for meaning in his past, his current reason for being, and in his search for a connectedness to God which affords purpose, peace, and salvation in this life and in the life to come.
    Students, as well as administrators, should have a firm grasp on the past events in human history. In the historical realm, lessons of previous generations can give a broad base of information, knowledge, and wisdom in regards to how life was lived in the past and how lessons learned during this time period can affect decisions made today. With a strong, analytical background of historical knowledge professions in all fields, including educational administration, can benefit from applying wisdom to knowledge and acting upon the learned observation in a positive and productive manner.
    Religion is an important part of our society and culture. To deny that man is a spiritual creature is to deny man’s total existence. Political correctness in the current age has discouraged many acts of religious volition and in essence has denied basic freedoms to members of our society who believe and espouse to a Higher Power who is active and present in one’s everyday life.
    Administrators with religious faith have the same freedom of speech rights that those who espouse no belief traditions are endowed with. “Religion and faith have anchored many decision makers in their administrative and leadership positions over time, from Mahatma Gandhi to George W. Bush” (English, 2003, p. 173). Therefore, has history has shown, faith can play an important part in the shaping of an organization, a state, or even a country. In the light of postmodernism’s expansion of boundaries, religion can play an important an integral role in the personal and professional lives of educational administrators.
    The philosophy component inherent in the synoptic realm challenges both students, teachers, and administrators to develop a sound basis for one’s belief. This entails great study, thought, and foresight. One’s philosophy is not a neutral collection of scattered ideas and independent thought patterns. A true philosophical base is contingent on gathering the sum of one’s own knowledge and beliefs and articulating a system of belief that is capable of guiding and directing one’s personal and career goals and decisions.

    Concluding Remarks

    Postmodernism challenges the theory that there is only one right way to achieve or accomplish a specific goal or objective. In light of educational administration in the field of Special Education, new paradigms for operation are needed to ensure that we do not loose a generation of students in both their mind, body, and soul because we as a nation are unwilling to try new techniques and procedures to educate this challenging, but still reachable population of the student body.
    Postmodernism challenges leaders to “think outside of the box.” This pattern of thinking allows the educational administrator to seek new ways to solve old dilemmas, such as how to inspire, motivate, and challenge a group of students who have been designated as members of the special education school population. Utilizing the Ways of Knowing through the Realms of Meaning supports the postmodernism theory that there is more than one way to look at a subject and to learn and understand its concepts. By combining the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning with the ideas and philosophies described as postmodernism, new opportunities for achievement and success are now available to the school administrator overseeing and directing the “educational adventure” of at-risk students designated as learning-disabled.

    References

    Eberly, D. (1995). Even Newt can’t save us. Wall Street Journal, February 3, p. A10.
    As quoted in Fenwick, p. 29

    English, F. (2003). The postmodern challenge to the theory and practice of educational administration, Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Ltd.

    Hardy C. and Clegg S., (1996). Some dare call it power, Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage, p. 625.

    Jannedy, S., Poletto, R. & Weldon, T., (1994). Language files: materials for an introduction language and linguistics, Ohio:Ohio State University Press.

    Kritsonis, W.A., PhD. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning, Partially funded by the 2005 class of the Oxford Round Table in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England.

    Kritsonis, W.A., PhD. (2002). William Kritsonis, PhD on Schooling, Ashland, Ohio.

    McLaughlin M. & Nolet, V. (2004). What every principal needs to know about special education, Thousand Oaks, CA:Corwin Press

    Ubben G., Hughes L., & Norris, C. (2001). The principal: creative leadership for effective schools, Boston, MA:Allyn and Bacon.

    Zeki,S. (1999) Inner vision: An exploration of art and the brain, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-14.

    See: http://www.nationalforum.com

  7. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    Practical Applications of Educational
    Research and Basic Statistics
    ________________________________________
    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Kimberly Grantham Griffith, PhD
    Cristian Bahrim, PhD
    Robert L. Marshall, EdD
    David Herrington, PhD
    Veda E. Brown, PhD

    Published by National FORUM Journals
    17603 Bending Post Drive
    Houston, Texas 77095

    Copyright 2007/2008 by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act Of 1976, no part of this professional publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the proper written permission of Dr. William Kritsonis. Absolutely no unauthorized reproduction of this text.

    ISBN: 0-9770013-4-2
    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

    $79.00 (United States)
    $89.00 (Canada)
    $99.00 (All others)

    Published in the United States of America

    Practical Applications of Educational
    Research and Basic Statistics
    ________________________________________
    William Allan Kritsonis
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Prairie View, Texas

    Kimberly Grantham Griffith
    Associate Professor
    Department of Professional Pedagogy
    Lamar University
    Beaumont, Texas

    Cristian Bahrim
    Assistant Professor
    Department of Chemistry and Physics
    Department of Electrical Engineering
    Lamar University
    Beaumont, Texas

    Robert L. Marshall
    Professor
    Department of Educational Leadership
    Western Illinois University
    Macomb, Illinois

    David E. Herrington
    Assistant Professor
    Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Prairie View, Texas

    Veda E. Brown
    Department of Psychology
    College of Juvenile Justice and Psychology
    Prairie View A&M University
    Prairie View, Texas

  8. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

    Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Prairie View A&M University
    Kimberly Grantham Griffith
    Lamar University
    Cristian Bahrim, PhD
    Lamar University
    Robert L. Marshall, EdD
    Western Illinois University
    David Herrington, PhD
    Prairie View A&M University
    Teresa Ann Hughes, PhD
    National FORUM Journals Veda E. Brown, PhD
    Prairie View A&M University

    ABOUT THE AUTHORS
    ________________________________________

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD is Editor-in-Chief of the NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. He is a tenured professor in the PhD Program in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University/Member Texas A&M University System. He was a Visiting Lecturer (2005) at the Oxford Round Table, Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, ENGLAND. Dr. Kritsonis is also a Distinguished Alumnus (2004) at Central Washington University in the College of Education and Professional Studies, Ellensburg, Washington. He has authored or co-authored numerous articles and conducted several research presentations with students and colleagues in the field of education. Dr. Kritsonis has served education as a school principal, superintendent of schools, director of field experiences and student teaching, consultant, and professor.

    Kimberly Grantham Griffith, Ph.D., is Editor of THE LAMAR UNIVERSITY ELECTRONIC JOURNAL OF STUDENT RESEARCH. She is a tenured associate professor in the Department of Professional Pedagogy at Lamar University/Member Texas State University System. Dr. Griffith is also a Councilor (board member) for the At-Large Division, Council for Undergraduate Research (CUR). In April 2000, she received the prestigious Lamar University Merit Award for teaching excellence. Dr. Griffith serves on the editorial board of the Electronic Journal of Inclusive Education. She has co-authored numerous articles and conducted several research presentations with students and colleagues in the field of education.

    Cristian Bahrim, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry and Physics at Lamar University and holds a joint-appointment in the Department of Electrical Engineering. He is (co-)author in several papers published in peer-reviewed journals/books and conferences’ proceedings. He conducted several research projects in the field of atomic physics, optics, lasers, astronomy and physics education. Since 2001, Dr. Bahrim has served as reviewer for the Journal of Physics of the Institute of Physics (England), and recently he joined the editorial board of “The Lamar University Electronic Research Journal of Student Research”. Dr. Bahrim received the M.S. degree in Physics from University of Bucharest in 1991 and the Ph.D. degree in Physics from University of Paris in 1997. He held a research associate position in Kansas State University (1999-2001) and he was research assistant in the Institute of Atomic Physics, Romania (1991-1998). He obtained two outstanding McNair Mentor awards in 2005. Since 2000, he was selected in several Marquis? Who’s Who publications. Dr. Bahrim was the recipient of a French Government Scholarship (1991-1996).

    David E. Herrington, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling at Prairie View A&M University/Member Texas A&M University System. He has supervised more than 2,000 student research field-based projects. Dr. Herrington has co-authored numerous articles with students in the area of education. He believes that everyone uses statistical thinking and inductive reasoning in everyday life. Making students aware of their existing skills and knowledge in these areas provides them with a sense that, in many ways, statistical reasoning and scientific processes are familiar. The value of a statistics course comes from the development of the specialized vocabulary, participative data gathering methods, and data analysis techniques that can enhance or leverage existing conceptual frameworks that students bring into the learning process.

    Robert L. Marshall, EdD is the Senior National Editor of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS. He is a tenured professor at Western Illinois faculty in the Educational Leadership Department. His background in education spans over 25 years and includes teaching in secondary public schools, campus as well as district level administrative experience and ten year in higher education as a professor of Educational Leadership in the Texas A&M University System. Dr. Marshall’s research interests are in the areas of distance education, secondary student success initiatives along with studies related to the principalship and superintendency in public schools.

    Copyright ? 2006 William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.
    ALL RIGHTS RESERVED/FOREVER

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