Tech Education Certification, Graduate Programs, and Degrees?

What is the proper degree to get to work as a tech educator in Illinois? Are Illinois schools and Illinois universities on the same page in regards to requirements, needs, and expectations? What program would you suggest is the best in our Illinois universities? When one looks at Illinois’ overall approach, does the word eclectic fit best?

Here is an interesting program from Chicago State University. Based on the description, is this a good program to prepare someone for teaching in Illinois?

The Technology Education program prepares professionals to teach technology related subjects in middle, junior high and high schools. The program qualifies candidates for the Type 09 Illinois High School Certificate in Technology Education for Grades 6-12, and it includes the following specializations:

  • Communication

  • Energy Utilization

  • Production

  • Transportation



With additional course work, the program offers opportunities to complete requirements for the following designations:


  • Cisco Certified Network Administrator Certificate
  • Illinois State Board of Education Work-based (Cooperative) Education Coordinator Designation

The Technology Education program is approved by the National Council on Accreditation of Teacher Education’s Council on Technology Teacher Education (NCATE/CTTE) and Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE).

What do you think?


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  1. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said:

    25th Year Anniversary of National FORUM Journals
    Founded in 1983
    William Allan Kritsonis’ Contribution to Education

    Arthur L. Petterway, PhD
    Houston Independent School District
    Houston, Texas

    This year marks the 25th Year Anniversary of the founding of National FORUM Journals by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. The following snapshot of the career of Dr. Kritsonis is a small tribute to his contribution to education.

    Founder of National FORUM Journals

    Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these academic, scholarly, refereed, peer-reviewed journals.

    Dr. Kritsonis Lectures at the University of Oxford, Oxford, England

    In 2005, Dr. Kritsonis was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, Oxford, England. His lecture was entitled the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning.

    Dr. Kritsonis Recognized as Distinguished Alumnus

    In 2004, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis was recognized as the Central Washington University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and
    Professional Studies. Dr. Kritsonis was nominated by alumni, former students, friends,
    faculty, and staff. Final selection was made by the Alumni Association Board of Directors.
    Recipients are CWU graduates of 20 years or more and are recognized for achievement in their professional field and have made a positive contribution to society. For

    the second consecutive year, U.S. News and World Report placed Central Washington
    University among the top elite public institutions in the west. CWU was 12th on the list in the 2006 On-Line Education of “America’s Best Colleges.”

    Educational Background

    Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

    Professional Experience

    Dr. Kritsonis began his career as a teacher. He has served education as a principal, superintendent of schools, director of student teaching and field experiences, invited guest professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has earned tenure as a professor at the highest academic rank at two major universities.

    Books – Articles – Lectures – Workshops

    Dr. Kritsonis lectures and conducts seminars and workshops on a variety of topics. He is author of more than 500 articles in professional journals and several books. His popular book SCHOOL DISCIPLINE: The Art of Survival is scheduled for its fourth edition. He is the author of the textbook William Kritsonis, PhD on Schooling that is used by many professors at colleges and universities throughout the nation and abroad.
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis’ version of the book of Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (858 pages) was published in the United States of America in cooperation with partial financial support of Visiting Lecturers, Oxford Round Table (2005). The book is the product of a collaborative twenty-four year effort started in 1978 with the late Dr. Philip H. Phenix. Dr. Kritsonis was in continuous communication with Dr. Phenix until his death in 2002.
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was the lead author of the textbook Practical Applications of Educational Research and Basic Statistics. The text provides practical content knowledge in research for graduate students at the doctoral and master’s levels.
    In 2008, Dr. Kritsonis’ book Non-Renewal of Public School Personnel Contracts: Selected Supreme and District Court Decisions in Accordance with the Due Process of Law was published by The Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, New York.
    Dr. Kritsonis’ seminar and workshop on Writing for Professional Publication has
    been very popular with both professors and practitioners. Persons in attendance generate an
    article to be published in a refereed journal at the national or international levels. Dr. Kritsonis has traveled and lectured throughout the United States and world-wide. Some recent international tours include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, Turkey, Italy, Greece,

    Monte Carlo, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Poland,
    Germany, and many more.

    Founder of National FORUM Journals – Over 4,000 Professors Published

    Dr. Kritsonis is founder of NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS (since 1983). These publications represent a group of highly respected scholarly academic periodicals. Over 4,000 writers have been published in these refereed, peer-reviewed periodicals. In 1983, he founded the National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision – now acclaimed by many as the United States’ leading recognized scholarly academic refereed journal in educational administration, leadership, and supervision.
    In 1987, Dr. Kritsonis founded the National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal whose aim is to conjoin the efforts of applied educational researchers world-wide with those of practitioners in education. He founded the National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal, National FORUM of Special Education Journal, National FORUM of Multicultural Issues Journal, International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, and the DOCTORAL FORUM – National Journal for Publishing and Mentoring Doctoral Student Research. The DOCTORAL FORUM is the only refereed journal in America committed to publishing doctoral students while they are enrolled in course work in their doctoral programs. In 1997, he established the Online Journal Division of National FORUM Journals that publishes academic scholarly refereed articles daily on the website: Over 600 professors have published online. In January 2007, Dr. Kritsonis established the National Journal: Focus On Colleges, Universities, and Schools.

    Professorial Roles

    Dr. Kritsonis has served in professorial roles at Central Washington University, Washington; Salisbury State University, Maryland; Northwestern State University, Louisiana; McNeese State University, Louisiana; and Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge in the Department of Administrative and Foundational Services.
    In 2006, Dr. Kritsonis published two articles in the Two-Volume Set of the Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration published by SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, California. He is a National Reviewer for the Journal of Research on Leadership, University Council for Educational Administration (UCEA).
    In 2007, Dr. Kritsonis was invited to write a history and philosophy of education for the ABC-CLIO Encyclopedia of World History.
    Currently, Dr. Kritsonis is Professor of Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University – Member of the Texas A&M University System. He teaches in the newly established PhD Program in Educational Leadership. Dr. Kritsonis taught the Inaugural class session in the doctoral program at the start of the fall 2004 academic year. In October 2006, Dr. Kritsonis chaired the first doctoral student to earn a PhD in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University. He lives in Houston, Texas.

  2. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said:

    Applied Educational Research Journal (AERJ)
    22 (3) 2009

    Integrating the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning to Improve National Fundraising Objectives

    Monica G. Williams
    PhD Student in Educational Leadership
    College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Associate Vice President for Development
    Prairie View A&M University

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    Central Washington University
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    Ellensburg, Washington

    Improving academic achievement is at the heart of college and university fund development. It has become increasingly important for fundraisers in educational settings to find innovative means to improve educational opportunities by increasing the institution’s financial resources. The purpose of this article is to discuss the benefits of integrating the six realms of meaning as defined by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis in the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning (2007) to increase private financial support at higher education institutions.


    Using the six realms of meaning in the fundraising profession can increase private resources for institutions of higher education. Being a successful fundraiser in higher education means employing a wide range of strategies in order to increase the donor pool and continue the giving cycle for current donors. “Fundraisers know that average gift value increases with donor longevity, so the most productive use of professional and volunteer time in fundraising is spent giving donors what they need to stay loyal to the cause” (Burk, 2003, p. 6). Cultivating loyal donors increases the likelihood of building a solid and sustainable donor base that is willing to contribute meaningful dollars over an indefinite time.

    Purpose of the Article
    The purpose of this article is to help fundraising professionals increase charitable giving through use of the six realms of meaning as defined by Dr. William Allan Kritsonis (2007) in the Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning. University advancement professionals and development officers can increase and stabilize institutional resources by using symbolics to improve donor communication; by using empirics to become more knowledgeable about their individual donor preferences; by using esthetics to gain an appreciation for the value of donors’ personal interests; by using synnoetics to cultivate relationships with new donors; by employing ethics to foster a sense of trust between fundraisers and donors; and by using synoptics to increase giving among historical donors.

    Using Symbolics in Fundraising
    One of many ways to build donor relations and secure the next gift is through the use of symbolics. The use of ordinary language between fundraisers and donors demonstrates existence of a true, personal relationship and creates a forum for open communication. People give money to people, not causes. Donors need to believe that they can communicate on a personal level with development professionals. Oftentimes, donors communicate their wishes through gestures, signs, or symbols, and fundraisers are required to read those signals. “Being conscious of how donors feel when they give makes it easy to respond in kind. A gift given eagerly in the anticipation of achieving something worthwhile should be matched by an equally enthusiastic response from the solicitor or the charity” (Burk, 2003, p. 15).
    Donors need to feel connected to the cause. This connection becomes more likely when fundraisers increase communication and recognition practices. Increasing communication means presenting timely information through regular university publications and on-line tools. It means reaching out to donors and having them anticipate a development officer’s next contact. “Everything you do that is read, heard, seen, or attended by even one of your donors is a part of your donor communication inventory, whether you intend it to be or not” (Burk, 2003, p. 113).
    A significant component of donor communication is donor recognition or acknowledgement. Thanking donors through written correspondence or with meaningful tokens represents appreciation for gifting. “On a gift-by-gift basis, budgeting communication and recognition relative to gift size seems to make sense, but it is actually the opposite of what we need to do if we want to retain more donors and increase the average value of contributions. We make the mistake of designing and budgeting communication as a post-gift activity instead of what it really is—the investment cost of securing the next gift” (Burk, 2003 p. 111).

    Empirics in Fundraising
    The ability to secure the next gift from a donor presupposes that fundraisers are empirically savvy. Fundraisers should be factually well-informed about their donors. They must know donor history and have the wherewithal to match donor preferences with unfunded priorities and critical agency needs. Ideally, fundraisers solicit the first gift, acknowledge that gift, prepare to re-solicit in a short but respectable timeframe, solicit the donor again, and continue the cycle accordingly. Knowing what the donor wants and expects will provide a smooth transition into giving and repeat giving.
    Donors appreciate feeling as if they have a partnership with the organizations to which they contribute. Universities have “…altered their fundraising methodology to give donors what they really need, and in so doing they have reaped the rewards” (Burk, 2003, p. 33). By adding structure and strategy to higher education fundraising through professional consulting firms, universities have made their claim to a fortune that has long awaited them. Much of what continues to await fundraisers is how to become more creative in cultivation strategies in order to gain more resources in areas that have been intentionally avoided by educational institutions.

    Appreciation for Esthetics
    Charitable organizations and individual donors have a variety of funding priorities. Accordingly, it is important that fundraisers embrace an appreciation for matching donor preferences with institutional needs. This requires flexibility in fundraising practices. It could be stated that donors largely give in two primary, broad categories—arts and sciences. To this end, being knowledgeable of all institutional programs is critical in fund development. Fundraisers must be appreciative of contributions in esthetics. They must be knowledgeable of the arts, understand the value of art collections, etc. They must know how to handle family members when the institution is the beneficiary of bequests.

    Relationship Building Using Synnoetics
    Shared beliefs and values often shape an organization’s culture. Organizations conduct business under the presumption that they will be able to sell and deliver a product that is mutually appreciated by the customer. Therefore, customer satisfaction can shape an organization’s culture. In higher education, the concept of synnoetics exists among fundraisers during the processes of donor cultivation and gift stewardship. Convincing donors that an agency operates at their best interest is largely influenced by common philosophies and values.
    According to Lance Loren Johnsen in a theoretical study involving conflicts that confront academic fundraisers, “fostering ethical relationships with donors is essential for preserving the integrity of the philanthropic gift economy” (Johnsen, p. 2). Being conscious of how donors feel when they give makes it easy to respond in kind (Burke, 2003, p. 14). A gift given eagerly in the anticipation of achieving something worthwhile should be matched by an equally enthusiastic response from the solicitor or charity. Ultimately, the shared belief or common goal between fundraisers and donors is what creates a continuum of giving.
    If a donor does not feel connected to an organization, the likelihood of acquiring a major gift is minimized. Philanthropists rely on their relationships with organizations to influence their giving. The lack of shared beliefs between prospective donors and organizations results in unsatisfied philanthropists. It is incumbent upon the fundraiser to resolve any differences in philosophical underpinnings prior to donor cultivation. Academic fundraisers resolve deliberative conflicts through choices grounded in their responsibilities to persons (Johnsen, p. 115).
    Senior fundraising professional and author, Penelope Burke, addresses donor philosophy best by saying, “When a donor sits down to write a check, her heart may be racing, she may be imagining how you will react when you open the envelope, and she is certainly wondering whether her gift will have a positive impact on the work you both cherish” (Burke, p. 15). This statement is the foundation of the fundraising profession. People give money to people, not causes. In translation, philanthropists give careful consideration to making substantial donations, and when cultivated by the right person at the right time, the organization reaps the best harvest.
    In the fund development community, stewards often overlook the importance of building relationships. Fundraisers must embrace the philosophy that requires them to appreciate the customer. Donor appreciation embodies the culture of any reputable fundraising organization. It is, therefore, imperative that fundraisers understand, respect, and trust donors.

    Ethics in Fundraising
    Direct correlation between ethical behavior and fundraising is clear. In fact, the basis for successful fundraising is ethics. Without application of ethical principles, fundraisers would not garner the support necessary to achieve effective results.
    Assessing ethics among fundraisers is a fascinating topic. It is almost understood that educational advancement professionals are responsible for the welfare of others (i.e. employees, students, parents, community, and the society at large). Having a responsibility of this magnitude insists that fundraisers have basic core values that represent the highest level of ethical principles.
    These development leaders are called upon to make moral decisions at many levels of complexity. The degree to which they make the best decision is how they are publicly evaluated by the donor community. While the values of fundraisers influence the make up their ethical framework, it is incumbent upon them to make decisions that satisfy the vast majority of its constituents. This is probably the single most challenging attribute fundraisers have to adopt. Being flexible enough to please a diverse community requires minimization of personal opinions. A collaboration of values that embodies input from a committed donor community will foster the opportunity for buy-in from all who have a vested interest in increasing resources for institutional advancement.

    Donor Attrition through Use of Synoptics
    Fundraisers must understand individual societal contributions by employing synoptics. “If a nonprofit organization is going to thrive in the twenty-first century, it must not only recognize and serve diverse cultures but also raise substantial portions of its monies from them” (Newman, 2002, p. 3). Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) have recently embraced the concept of matching donor preferences with institutional funding needs. Approaching donors from this angle has yielded a wealth of resources for HBCUs. Many of these schools have discovered that using students to call alumni produces results. When alumni receive a call from a student pursuing a similar academic discipline, alumni perceive that they are in touch with a beneficiary who has similar beliefs and/or philosophies. For example, an engineering student contacting an alumnus who majored in engineering prompts a thoughtful and proportionate gift and presents the opportunity for the alumnus to reconnect with the institution. Reestablishing the relationship will nearly guarantee support.

    Concluding Remarks
    In conclusion, having a universal vision about the importance of philanthropy will help fundraisers achieve the epitome of excellence (Kritsonis, 2007, p. 564). The six realms of meaning as introduced by Dr. William A. Kritsonis present an effective model for fundraising achievement in higher education. The model embraces using symbolics to communicate more effectively; empirics to define and meet donor preferences; esthetics to gain an appreciation for the value of donors’ personal interests; synnoetics to improve personal knowledge and experience through donor contact; ethics to foster a sense of trust between fundraisers and donors; and synoptics to unite donors with a worth cause. Understanding how each realm can work intermittently to establish a donor community will nearly guarantee a continuum of philanthropic generosity.


    Burk, P. (2003). Donor-centered fundraising. Chicago: Cygnus Applied Research, Incorporated.

    Johnsen, L. L. (May, 2005). Understanding deliberative conflicts that confront
    academic fund raisers: A grounded theory study. Retrieved June 6, 2006, from
    ProQuest Information and Learning Company website:
    Kritsonis, W.A. (2007). Ways of knowing through the realms of meaning. Houston, Texas: National Forum Press.
    Newman, D.S. (2002). Opening doors: Pathways to diverse donors. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Formatted by Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, National Research and Manuscript Preparation Editor, NATIONAL FORUM JOURNALS, Houston, Texas.

  3. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said:

    National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal
    26 (4) 2009

    Leaders We Have a Problem! It is Teacher Retention…What Can We Do about It?

    La’Shonte Williams
    PhD Student in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University
    The Whitelowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View, TX

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table (2005)
    University of Oxford, Oxford England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    Central Washington University
    College of Education and Professional Studies

    This article examines the schoolwork environment and how to combat the major problem of teacher retention. Leaders within an organization have the important task of motivating their employees. Various organizations will spend extra money every year developing new programs to keep quality employees. Still, leaders are wondering why so many of their employees are leaving the organization. Employees receive monetary incentives, and the question remains, why do organizations have such a high turnover rate each year?
    Note: Special note of gratitude to Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith for her assistance in getting this article published. See:

    Money as a motivator does not work for everyone. (W. Kritsonis, personal communication, March 10, 2007) says there are two characteristics about people and money. The two characteristics are: (1) People always feel entitled to more money and (2) Regardless of what pay, satisfaction is short lived. If companies want to do something about employee retention, then it is time to shift the focus to another tactic. According to the Nobscot Corporation, employee retention has become a key focus for human resource professionals (Kimball and Nink, 2006). Organizations and schools have come to the conclusion that hundreds of thousands of dollars can be saved annually by reducing employee turnover (Kimball and Nink, 2006). This is extremely important in an organization such as the school system. A school system with roughly 10,000 teachers and an estimated turnover rate of 20% would start to save nearly $500,000.00 per year by reducing turnover by just one percentage point” ( Kimball and Nink, 2006, p. 66). Not only would reducing teacher turnover provide monetary savings, but it would also contribute to saving our children’s educational future. Some would say that motivation would reduce staff turnover rate, which is the approach I would like to focus on. According to Kritsonis (W. Kritsonis, personal communication, March 10, 2007)), effective motivation is a matter of non-financial awards.

    Purpose of this Article
    The purpose of this article is to study the role of leadership as it relates to human resource management. With the shift to No Child Left Behind, it is critical that schools hire and retain high quality teachers for the sake of our children. Many districts have put in a great deal of effort and money in recruitment strategies and preparation programs in an endeavor to hire quality teachers. However, not enough is being done to retain these teachers.

    Effective Recruitment Initiatives and Alternative Certification Programs

    For many school districts, hiring practices, effective recruitment initiatives for minorities, and alternative certification programs have improved. With so many new programs and dollars spent, the question remains, why is teacher turn-over at a high rate? Why are so many high-quality teachers leaving the profession and developing negative attitudes toward teaching?
    Literature states there are two influential factors that can guide teachers’ perspective of teaching. The two factors are school culture and school leadership. School culture has the ability to shape teacher professional practices, attitudes, and beliefs toward teaching. School leadership plays an important role during this development.

    Effective Leaders Have Vision

    An effective leader is one who has a vision, a plan for making the vision a reality, and possesses the ability to communicate the vision effectively. An effective leader is someone who influences the behaviors of others by creating a positive working environment. Leadership has the power to influence and steer school culture in a positive path. Administrators can build a sense of community in the workplace or not. Leadership can be normative, govern by strict rules, and bureaucratic tactics with a hierarchical form of organization. Leadership can be laissez-faire, a lack of organization, and no evidence of shared goals, values, vision and lack support. Instead, leadership can be effective, strong, goal-oriented, flexible, and encouraging when it comes to interacting with the staff.
    If school leaders want to reduce the number of teachers leaving the profession, then they need to practice being effective in a collaborative culture. If not, more and more teachers, especially the top-notch teachers, will become discouraged and more likely to develop negative attitudes toward the profession.

    Employee Retention Practices

    There are many employee retention practices but no one has developed one from sound theory. Personally, I think a well-developed employee retention program should focus on two areas. The first area would be the correct motivational training of administrators. The second area would be to train administrators about exit interviews. I will look at training administrators first. Instead of focusing on what the employees should do differently, it would be interesting to see how a strategy as simple as leaders learning motivational techniques may affect employee retention.
    It would be wonderful to see districts develop and implement a program teaching administrators how to motivate employees. Not all administrators know how to motivate others. The administrator is a critical piece in how a school manages and keeps quality employees. When there are problems within an organizational setting, the first thing most leaders do is look for ways to change the employees. School systems spend countless dollars on training and materials to change the employee’s attitudes and values. These are the hard things to change, and most of the time, not the real root of the problem. The first thing to do when employees under perform is look at myself to see what I can do or change to make things better. I would recommend other administrators do the same. This may be difficult for some leaders, but it is easier to change yourself than to change everyone else. As a leader, it is your job to find out the reasons your employees are not motivated. If the school systems focused on training the leaders in motivational and problem-solving strategies there would be a lot less turnover in the schools.

    Several Motivational Theories

    In modern organizations, the first motivational tool used by most leaders is the monetary incentive. Incentive pay can be used to influence employee behavior, but according to Katzell & Thompson, (1990) “it is certain that any benefits gained in the short-term will be more than lost in the long-term.” “It is people’s nature to look at what you are doing for them today. What you did for them in the past is quickly forgotten.” (Katzell & Thompson, 1990, p. 150) That may not be the way it should be, but that is the way it is. With some people, incentives may trigger a short-term burst of output, but the next time you require that type of work, the reward will no longer be looked at as an “incentive”, but as something they are expecting. With this being said, motivation of employees should go far beyond monetary incentives in order to be effective.
    One may ask, “What is work motivation?” Through the years, various scholars have offered numerous definitions of motivation nearly all of which focus on the notion of enhancing and sustaining effort toward some desired goal-directed behavior. Kreitner (1995) defines motivation as the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction. Another definition is a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific, unmet needs (Buford, Bedeian, & Linder, 1995). Higgins (1994) states that motivation is an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need. Place these in an organizational environment and an effective definition of work motivation emerges (Steers & Porter, 1991), the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals. According to Linder, (1998) the Hawthorne studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 found that, employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes.
    There are several motivational theories out there. The question remains, which of these theories should organizations focus on? Four of the main theories are; the need theory, equity theory, expectancy theory, and job design model theory. The need theory highlights on internal reasons that energize behaviors and how environmental factors influence those reasons. According to the Journal of Extension, Maslow says employees have five levels of need. Those needs are physiological, safety, social, ego, and self-actualizing (Linder, 1998). In this theory, Maslow believes that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher need would motivate employees (Linder, 1998). The equity theory recognizes that individual motivation comes from the rewards they receive compared to what others receive. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965).
    The expectancy says the way people act in ways that produce wanted or expected outcomes is a motivator. According to the Journal of Extension, Vroom’s theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards. “Rewards may be either positive or negative, the more positive the rewards the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated (Vroom, 1964).” Finally, the job design motivational theory is based on the idea that the task or job is a motivator itself. This theory is based on the work of Herzberg. “Herzberg’s work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Linder, 1998).” Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction (Linder, 1998).

    Effective Leadership and Expectancy Theory

    A well-rounded training program for administrators will show the administrators what they should do to get the desire productivity from their employees. If based on the expectancy theory and the job design theory, that program would clearly define the elements of work motivation. In an article examining the relationship between effective leadership and expectancy theory, Isaac, Zerbe, and Pitts (2001) asserted to heighten the effort-performance link, leaders must:
    1) Provide challenging work that is valued.
    2) Consider the ability of the follower.
    3) Recognize the variances in follower self-esteem and self-concept.
    4) Articulate clear goals and performance outcomes, and understand the correlation between individual followers and job satisfaction.
    ( Isaac, Zerbe, and Pitts, 2001)

    They also stressed three follower beliefs that strengthen the performance-outcome link:
    1) The follower must have trust and believe that the leader will deliver a salient reward.
    2) The follower must receive equitable, predictable treatment.
    3) The leader must give clear, honest feedback.
    (Isaac, Zerbe, and Pitts, 2001)

    Finally, Isaac et al. (2001) stated three issues that must be addressed with reference to the valence of outcomes:

    1) Leaders must understand the attractiveness of outcomes will vary with individual differences.
    2) Leaders must align the goals of followers with those of the organization.
    3) Leaders must understand that follower’ needs can change as they go throughout life.
    (Isaac, Zerbe, and Pitts, 2001)

    According to Lord & Brown (2001), leaders are involved in two distinct responsibilities within the motivational progression. First, leaders are called upon to energize followers to exert effort toward individual goals that will accomplish organizational aims. Goal setting is an important leadership responsibility because effective goals can be motivating (Winters & Latham, 1996). A review of 11 meta-analyses and six narrative reviews of goal-setting research suggest that goal setting does increase individual, group, and work unit performance. Early goal-setting research provided strong support for the belief that specific and challenging goals are associated with higher levels of performance, more so than either no goals or general “do your best goals” (Mento, Steel, and Karren 1987). In contrast, that body of research also suggested that narrow goals and multiple or potentially conflicting goals might decrease performance. More recently, Locke and Latham (1990) have proposed an integrated model of work motivation and satisfaction in which challenging and specific goals lead to high performance, which, in turn, leads to increased rewards, greater satisfaction, and ultimately, a stronger commitment to the organization. Also important is the leader’s responsibility for the leader/follower relationship. Einstein (1995) recognized this dual nature and offered a diagnostic model that depicts leadership along a continuum from “responsible for” to “responsible to” leader behaviors. The central idea is that transformational leaders begin the leader/follower relationship with a sense of “responsibility for “goal success and individual growth but their objective is to evolve the relationship, when appropriate, to an interdependent relationship when leader and follower are “responsible to” to each other (Einstein & Humphreys, 2001). In a recent article, Humphrey’s and Einstein stated that “enhancing follower motivation is a leadership responsibility that entails leader communication, feedback, and behaviors that are congruent to an individual follower’s information and engagement preference based upon temperament (Einstein & Humphreys, 2001).”
    As a leader and an Assistant Principal, La’SHonte Williams has come up with several rules that would be beneficial if included in a motivational training program for administrators. The first one is to treat your employees as adults and not children. Work rules are important. As a society, rules are important to protect the safety, comfort and serenity of individuals from each other. These rules should be adult rules. Physical and verbal abuse should never be used because they affect the safety and comfort of others. Whatever the rules are, they should be clear, fair, and uniformly administered. They should be documented in the employee handbook. Second, administrators should give their employees instructions and not orders. Many people believe that to be a good leader you have to give orders to the people below you. That is not the case. When you give an order, you do not allow the other person any room to think about what to do or how to do it. You do not allow the person the opportunity to figure out the best way to do the task. This, in turn, will hinder them from learning.

    Leadership Opportunities in the School Environment – Five Tips for Success

    We suggest that leaders should only give orders when it is necessary. All other times, you should give clear instructions. Sometimes you may have to do some monitoring and guiding, but coaching instead of orders will lessen the likelihood of employees developing hard feelings or hatred toward the leaders. Third, get your staff involved and encourage responsibility and leadership opportunities within the school environment. This is the whole idea behind the concept of a transformational leader. Seek to promote social interaction and teamwork between employees. Another important thing leaders need to do is listen to their employees and show them that their opinions, concerns, and thoughts are valid to you as a leader. The lines of communication must be open always and leaders should be reachable to their employees. Leaders should encourage innovation within the work environment and develop goals and challenges for all employees. Leaders should show appreciation and provide encouragement as needed. Leaders should also tolerate learning errors by giving honest feedback without using harsh criticism. It may sound cliché, but constructive criticism is the best criticism, mainly because it does not tap into the recipient’s emotional side. According to an article in an issue of Industrial Engineer, Managers should foster creativity within their work environment. We would have to agree with the use of this tactic when used for motivating others. “By creating an environment in your company that fosters creativity, you can encourage employees to react and adapt as conditions change (Cortello, 2005, p.26).” Cortello says there are five tips to identify roadblocks to creativity and cultivate an innovative work environment. The Five tips are as followed:

    1. Employees are often skeptical that there is a true commitment from management for real and meaningful change. Requests for innovation can be perceived as rhetoric if management does not demonstrate such commitment.

    2. Develop an environment that is conducive to innovative thinking and working in environment with the same demands and routines results in predictable outcomes. Change the physical environment to liven up things visually, and set employee expectations in terms of desired results while allowing flexibility and individuality. Micromanagers beware! Think about how your organization envisioned its programs compared to what they have become. Chances are the programs are more detailed and constrictive than intended. A good system evolves by adding necessary procedures and removing unnecessarily prescriptive procedures.

    3 Employees must be convinced that innovative ideas will be given valid consideration. Nothing is more disheartening to an employee than to have an idea dismissed without proper evaluation. Create a procedure for evaluating suggestions and ideas, and be sure that more than one person reviews suggestions. If ideas must work upstream through the traditional chain of command, then any manager in the chain who is adverse to change can shelve the idea. You never know which discarded idea had the potential to shape the firm.

    4. When the inevitable occurs and innovative ideas sometimes fail, employees must not feel as though their innovative spirit will be frowned upon. If the blame game is part of your corporate culture, then efforts to innovate are destined for failure. Ideas come forward in an atmosphere where the value of innovation exceeds the real or perceived consequences of entrepreneurial failure.

    5. Give your employees, either through their own initiative or under your guidance, dedicated time to focus on innovative ideas. Inspiration is often considered a mystical gift that strikes like lightening. In truth, it has more practical reality. Be it through corporate retreats, brainstorming meetings, or simply giving employees the flexibility to walk away from their desks for a few minutes each day, allow dedicated time for them to invoke their creative powers.
    (Cortello, Craig, 2005, pg.26)

    The above tips were designed to promote creativity within the corporate work environment, but could easily be modified to fit the educational work environment. The main idea is that “a leader’s job is to create an environment that will allow great ideas to come forward and then get out-of-the-way (Cortello, Craig, 2005)”. Developing and promoting an environment of creativity should not be the last resort, but an operational necessity within a work environment.
    Even though we know a little bit about motivational tactics now, one may still ask, “What reason should schools use motivational tactics other than for teacher retention?” The answer to me is quite simple. Another important reason districts should focus on motivation practices is student achievement. When employees feel motivated, they have a sense of commitment. When there is commitment, students will benefit in a positive way. One article tries to explain several motivational theories and how they serve as a tactic to increasing staff performance. It is like the domino-effect theory. Motivation increases commitment, commitment affects performance, and performance affects achievement. When staff performance increases so, will student performance.

    School Improvement Lessens the Rate of Teacher Turnover

    Now that we have examined the importance of correctly training the administrators of a school environment to lessen the rate of teacher turnover, We will examine the concept of “Exit Interviews” and how they may be helpful in this situation. Exit interviews should be used in conjunction with motivational tactics to combat teacher retention. When teachers leave, knowing the true reasons for their departure could help administrators fix problems they were not aware. Knowing could also help administrators make the necessary changes needed to help the remaining staff members and future staff members more comfortable. The main problem with this concept is that administrators may not know the proper way to carry it out. According to the Nobscot Corporation, “Exit interviews are one of the best ways to get true and honest feedback from employees. The downside is that it takes time to build up a significant amount of data.” (Kimball and Nink, 2006) Increasing the participation rate can help an administrator get greater amounts of usable information faster.

    Let Employees Know Honest Feedback Will Not Result in Punishment

    Research shows the average response rate for paper and pencil exit interviews is roughly 30-35%. That means that a district with 2000 employees and 15% turnover rate would expect to receive about 100 completed exit interviews per year. At this participation level, the organization is getting exit feedback from just 5% of the total employee population (Kimball and Nink, 2006). If districts expanded their capabilities to paper and pencil, a web-based online system, and a telephone system, the response rate would increase significantly. If administrators want employees to take part in an exit interview, they should present the interview in a way that appeals to the exiting employee. Administrators should make sure the interview is not too long. According to (Kimball and Nink, 2006), if you are using a survey with rated questions, 35-60 questions is about the right survey length. If there are more than 60 questions, you need to do some cutting because the questions beyond 60 will start to feel long and uncomfortable. Administrators should make sure the questions are not confusing or personally invasive. We would suggest the questions be checked for simplicity. Kimball and Nink say, you should avoid using questions that focus on the employee’s feelings and emotions. Always make it aware to the employee that the feedback they give will not be read or will make a difference. When you do make improvements based on suggestions from exit interviews, it is okay to tell employees the suggestion came from exit interview feedback. This will let your employees know that you do actually listen to their suggestions. Letting employees know that honest feedback will not result in punishments will also put them at ease. If administrators use these suggestions to modify their exit interview process, it would definitely increase the rate of honest participation and would in turn, give useful feedback to combat the teacher retention problem.

    Concluding Remarks
    In conclusion, the main goal of improving the teacher turnover rate is to improve the quality of education for our children. Training administrators in both motivational tactics and exit interviewing will help districts reach this goal. If school districts want to do something about employee retention, then it is time to shift the focus to another tactic. Remember, money as a motivator does not work for everyone.

    Adam, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology: 267-299.
    Buford, J. A., Jr., Bedeian, A. G., Linder, J. R. (1995). Management in Extension (3rd ed.). Ohio: Ohio State University Extension.
    Cortello, C. (2005). Fostering Creativity. Industrial Engineer, 10, p.26.
    Einstein, W. O. (1995). The challenge of leadership: A diagnostic model of transformational leadership. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 1, 120-133.
    Einstein, W. O., & Humphreys, J. H. (2001). Transforming leadership: Matching diagnostics to leader behaviors. The Journal of Leadership Studies, 8, 48-60.
    Higgins, J. M. (1994). The management challenges (2nd Ed.). New York: MacMillian.
    Isaac, R.G., Zerbe, W. J., & Pitt, D.C. (2001). Leadership and motivation: The effective application of expectancy theory. Journal of Managerial Issues, 13, 212-226.
    Katzell, R. A., & Thompson, D.E. (1990). Work motivation: Theory and practice. American Psychologist, 45, 144-153.
    Kimball, S. L., & Nink, C. E. (2006). How to Improve Employee Motivation, Commitment, Productivity, Well-Geing and Safety. Corrections Today, 68, p.66.
    Kreitner, R. (1995). Management (6th Ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
    Linder, J. R. (1998). Understanding Employee Motivation, Journal of Extension, 36, 25-33.
    Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). Work motivation: The high performance cycle. In U. Kleinbeck et al. (Eds.), Work motivation, 3-25.
    Lord, R. G., & Brown, D. J. (2001). Leadership, values, and subordinate self concepts. Leadership Quarter, 12, 133-152.
    Mento, A. J., Steel, R. P., & Karren R. J. (1987). A Meta- Analytic Study of theEffects of Goal Setting on Task Performance: 1966-1984. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 39, 52-83.
    Steers, R. M. & Porter, L.W., & Bigley, G. A (1996). Motivation and Leadership at work. Boston: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
    Winters, D., & Latham, G. P. (1996) The effect of learning versus outcome goals on a simple versus a complex task. Group and Organization Management, 21, 236-250.
    Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley.

  4. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said:

    The Lamar Electronic Journal of Student Research
    Fall 2008

    National Consideration: Identifying the Positive Correlation between Effective Teachers and Student Achievement Found in the Most Successful School Districts

    Darvin Myers
    M.ED. Student in Educational Leadership
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Prairie View, Texas
    Physical Education Teacher
    New Caney Independent School District
    New Caney, TX

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    The Whitelowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Prairie View, Texas
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    Central Washington University

    The authors takes a look at the importance of effective/ineffective teachers and their impact on student achievement and reports on the characteristics of effective teachers as perceived by teachers/professionals and students

    Authors note: Thank you Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith for your assistance in getting this article published.


    Proactive administrators can plan and implement innovative teaching methods and introduce the latest technological education advances till they’re blue in the face if he/she has teachers who are not effective in their methods and/or classroom management. Not only is the principal’s creativity being compromised but more importantly student achievement is not being manifested as a result of ineffective teachers. As an administrator, one must recognize that effective teachers are excellent classroom managers, these traits go hand in hand, and an effective teacher has both, excellent teaching methods and classroom management skills.

    Purpose of the Article

    The purpose of this article is to recognize the importance of effective teachers and the positive correlation of effective teaching methods and excellent classroom management skills. This article asserts that in order for principals to be successful they must acknowledge the fact that identifying effective and ineffective teachers may be the most important duty that they cannot afford errors in judgment. The consequences are adverse for students, teachers and administrators, and the school as a whole.

    New Teachers

    New teachers, sometimes, learn from their frustrations in the classroom and makes plans to do things differently the next year. Determined new teachers will collaborate and observe another teacher and make changes to their current philosophy. Teachers can learn from their mistakes ant become effective classroom managers as well as an effective teacher. New teachers with so much potential, who do not overcome their mistakes must be identified and documented for professional development and improvement opportunities. This is where the principal can intervene and develop the potential of a new teacher.

    Jon Smith is a second-year teacher. He knows his subject, he has creative ideas, but he is suffering because he lacks strong classroom management skills. Jon’s principal thought the rookie teacher would figure out some things over the summer but, so far this year, little improvement has been observed. Jon seems frustrated, and the principal is worried that he’ll become another statistic– another bright young teacher who ends up leaving a profession that can’t afford to lose somebody with his kind of potential. Luckily, the principal recognizes that potential and is ready to step in with some support. (Education World, 2008)

    Principals Options

    Professional development at the principals disposal are a professional growth plan, teacher pairing/mentoring, seminars and other professional development opportunities. First, a growth plan with a timeline for improvement developed with the teacher working together- both parties recognizing a change is needed for the betterment of everyone. This plan could include reflecting on the environment in the classroom and/or reading a book on classroom management. Observe other classrooms and watch video pertaining to classroom management. Second option would be to pair him with an effective teacher who could make suggestions and observe his /her classroom on a peer level. This teacher would fill the principal’s role of observing and documenting then reporting progress to the principal. A third method would be to identify and locate professional development seminars that focus on classroom management. There are many options using this method as there are many opportunities for conferences and seminars focusing on classroom management skills (Education World, 2008).

    Studies suggest that it takes more that 80 hours of focused, high-quality professional development to provide teachers with a level of proficiency that results in improved student learning outcomes. Classic studies conducted by the University of Tennessee Value-Added Research center ford that ‘the single most important factor affecting student academic gain is teachers effect” Other research confirms that effective teachers matter more that such factors as family income, parent education, race, and ethnicity…. Schools can significantly improve student learning by investing in teacher quality and by placing effective teachers where they are needed most. (Nelson & Landel, 2007)

    Characteristics of Effective Teachers

    We have identified effective/ineffective teachers and the professional development opportunities at the principal’s disposal. We will also identify the characteristics of effective teachers and the components of effective teachers as perceived by students. The following is a list of characteristics of effective teachers:

    ? Master of his/her subject, competent
    ? Lectures well prepared, orderly
    ? Subject related to life, practical
    ? Students questions and opinions encouraged
    ? Enthusiastic about his/her subject
    ? Approachable, friendly, available
    ? Concern for students progress
    ? Has a sense of humor, amusing (Characteristics of Effective Teachers, 2007)

    The components of effective teachers as perceived by students are:

    ? Discuss point of view other than his/her own
    ? Discuss recent developments in the field
    ? Presents origins of ideas and concepts
    ? Gives references for more interesting and involved materials (Characteristics of Effective Teachers, 2007)

    Concluding Remarks

    In conclusion, students need teachers who desire to be the best. They need teachers who take responsibility for every student to achieve academically. Students need to know that their teacher is concerned about them and their education. Effective teachers are the cornerstones of all successful school districts. Teachers are on the frontlines and form the foundation of a successful student, principal, and school.


    Nelson, G. D., Landel, C. C. (2007). Lessons about using teacher expertise, learned from reforms in science, can improve students learning in every subject. Educational Leadership (December/January), pp.72-75.
    Education World (2008). Classroom management: Principals help teachers develop essential skills. Retrieved from
    Characteristics of effective teachers (2007). Retrieved from the Center for Teaching Effectiveness (UT at Austin) Website:


  5. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said:

    The Lamar Electronic Journal of Student Research
    Fall 2008

    National Focus: Does the light Bulb of Mind Blindness Gets Switched On?

    Michelle Y. Punch
    Graduate Student in Guidance & Counseling
    The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Prairie View, Texas
    Biology Teacher
    Spring Independent School District
    Houston, Texas

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    The Whitelowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    Central Washington University


    The authors challenge the perceptions of individuals concerning the learning ability of students who are identified as autistic versus the learning ability of students who are in regular whole group instruction. This research compares the challenges of autistic students to those students who are in regular education classes.
    Authors note: thanks to Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith for her assistance in getting this article published

    This is a story about a little boy named Jerome. He is presently 5 years old and he has been diagnosed as being Autistic. As a newborn, Jerome seemed to be a normal baby boy. The differences were recognized when he began to get older (around 18 months) and the silence was turned on. He did not speak at all. He would sit in one spot and simply stare into space. Jerome’s mother was not any help because her solution was just to ignore the problem and hope that it disappeared. After much embarrassment, Jerome’s mother finally accepted that something was wrong at the age of 4. Jerome was assessed by several doctors and sent on his way. The problem was that Jerome’s mother had no knowledge of autism and did not have a clue of what to do next. Here is a small boy just wondering in darkness. After many journeys to different health facilities, Jerome’s mother got the help and understanding that she needed. Jerome is presently in a facility for students with special needs similar to his own and singing his ABC’s.
    Educating children with autism is a challenge for both parents and teachers. These children are individuals with unique strengths and weaknesses that need to be enhanced. Some may be of average to above-average intelligence, while others may be below average. Academic goals need to be adjusted so that autistic students can be successful.

    Purpose of the Article

    The purpose of this article is to acknowledge the perceptions held by individuals concerning the learning ability of students who are identified as Autistic versus the learning ability of students who are in regular whole group instruction.

    Autism at a Glance

    Autism is a mind disorder that affects the ability of gaining knowledge. This issue of mind blindness is on the rise in our nation and I feel that we need to get involved. One of the goals of education is to discover experiences and autism seems to block this goal. Students with Autism tend to be absorbed in the self. There can sometimes be an impairment involving emotional expression and other nonverbal behaviors required for successful social interaction. Some autistic students have delayed speech and others who don’t speak at all. Students have a difficult time trying to overcome the daily mind blinding experiences of Autism. For example, some teachers have witnessed some students with this condition sit on the floor for hours turning the wheels on toy cars or making a toy Ferris wheel go round and round. Researchers agree that autism stems from abnormal brain functioning, usually due to genetic or prenatal environmental causes. The psychological factor involved in Autism is the severely deficient of absent theory of the mind (Shulman, 1996). Autistic children display difficulty in capacities believed to contribute to an understanding of mental life. For example, it is a difficult task to retain attention, engage in social activities, or show adult behavior like normal functioning children.

    What Is A Regular Child?

    Regular children become better at planning and thinking out a sequence of acts ahead of time and allocating their attention in order to reach a goal. Assuming that the tasks are not too complex, preschoolers can generate and follow a plan. For example, they search for a lost object in a play yard systematically and exhaustively (Berk, 2004). Students in regular whole group instruction are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment. Instead of presenting readiness verbally, teachers create a rich variety of activities designed to promote exploration such as: art projects, puzzles, table games, dress up clothing, building blocks, books, measuring tools and musical instruments. As the regular child grows, his ability to think and remember broadens. Education is readily accessible with effort and readiness.

    Education and Autism
    Educating children with autism is a challenge for both parents and teachers. Children with autism are individuals with strengths and weaknesses. Teachers must be able to teach to a child’s ability and functioning level. Parents need to be very involved in their child’s education and make decisions such as whether their child should be in a regular or special-needs classroom and what kind of extra help their child needs. This often involves creating an IEP (Individual Education Program) that describes exactly what kind of help the school must provide for their child. It is important for parents and teachers to work together to get the best results for the child.
    Teachers should have some understanding of the child’s behavior and communication skills at home, and parents should let teachers know about their expectations as well as which techniques work at home. Open communication between school staff and parents can lead to better evaluation of a student’s progress. Community goals like purchasing meals and grocery shopping should be reinforced through work at school, just as parents’ goals for their child outside of school, such as the development of leisure activities, should be reinforced. Cooperation between parents and professionals can lead to increased success for the individual with autism.
    Academic goals need to be personalized to the individual’s intellectual ability and functioning level. Some children may need help understanding social situations and developing appropriate responses. Others may exhibit aggressive or dangerous behavior to them, and need assistance managing their behaviors. No one program will meet the needs of all individuals with the disability, so it is important to find the program or programs that best compliment the child’s needs. Just like treatment approaches, educational programs should be tailored to your child’s individual needs, flexible and re-evaluated on a regular basis.

    Bandaging the Wound

    There is no specific treatment for Autism at this moment, but some parents and doctors’ have considered the use of Complementary and Alternative medicine. The Alternative Medical Systems are built upon complete systems of theory and practice. Mind and body interventions use a host of techniques designed to enhance the mind’s capacity to affect bodily function and symptoms. These mind-body techniques include the following: patient support groups, cognitive behavior therapy, meditation, prayer and therapies that use creative outlets such as art, music, or dance.

    While no drug can cure autism, medication targeted towards specific symptoms can be very helpful (Hanson, Kalish and Bunce, 2006):
    • Stimulants such as Ritalin can help some children pay attention and concentrate
    • Serotonergic antidepressants are used to control stereotypic behaviors, perseveration, and mood swings
    • Atypical antipsychotic such as Risperidone are often used to control aggression and self-injury behavior
    • Anticonvulsants are given to children who have seizures
    • Anxiolytics such as Buspirone may be used to relieve anxiety.

    Concluding Remarks

    In conclusion, Autism has become intriguing to me due to its involvement with vaccinations. This article was to see if there are many differences in the academic achievement levels of autistic students versus regular students receiving regular whole group instruction. Maybe some autistic students knock down the wall of hindrance involving this disorder or academic achievement is impaired for throughout their school experience. Can learning take place during this mind blinding experience? Research says that with the proper program, perseverance and love anything is possible.


    Berk, Laura (2004). Development through the Lifespan. Pearson
    Publishing Company, Third Edition.9

    Bunce, E., Curtis, C., Hanson, E., McDaniel, S., Petry, J. & Ware, J.
    (2007). Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine
    Among Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
    Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 37: 628-636.

    Shulman, S. (1994). Stages of friendship growth in Preadolescence as
    Related to Attachment History. Journal of Social and
    Personal Relationships. 11, 341-361.


  6. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said:

    The Lamar Electronic Journal of Student Research
    Fall 2008

    National Impact: Crisis Can Strike at Anytime: Is Your Campus Ready?

    Shequila Holmes
    Education Leadership Program Student
    Prairie View A&M University
    Alief Independent School District
    Houston, Texas

    William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    Professor and Faculty Mentor
    PhD Program in Educational Leadership
    The Whitelowe R. Green College of Education
    Prairie View A&M University
    Member of the Texas A&M University System
    Visiting Lecturer (2005)
    Oxford Round Table
    University of Oxford, Oxford, England
    Distinguished Alumnus (2004)
    College of Education and Professional Studies
    Central Washington University

    This article discusses the importance of an efficient campus crisis management plan. It outlines key components for developing a plan that includes steps to be taken before, during and after a crisis.
    Authors note: Thank you Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith for your assistance in getting this article published


    The Columbine High School massacre of 1999, the hepatitis A outbreak at Florida Mesa Elementary in 2001, and the tornado that destroyed Enterprise High School in 2007 are tragedies that remind us of our not so innocent world and of Mother Nature’s undiscriminating wrath.
    Emergencies whether nature or imposed upon us my man will happen and school grounds are not exempt. However, failure to adequately plan for these foreseen and unforeseen events have the potential to be more devastating than the tragedy itself. The initial administrative decisions must be informed and responsible to ensure the safety of the students and staff in case of an emergency. A predetermined set of procedures and plan of action can be reassuring and bring about a level of control to an otherwise chaotic situation.

    Purpose of Article

    The purpose of this article is to outline key components of an effective crisis management plan that serves as a living document that all stakeholders can use when crucial decisions must be made and action taken.

    What is a Crisis

    A crisis, tragedy or an emergency are situations where individuals are faced with inadequate information, not enough time and sufficient resources, but in which leaders must make one or many crucial decisions.
    Crisis can be emerging, ongoing, or immediate. The foreseen events that we can prepare for such a tornado, hurricanes, or extreme storms are emerging crisis. Ongoing crisis may affect individuals over time such as the death of a classmate, child abuse, or a communicable disease like tuberculosis or a hepatitis outbreak. An armed intruder, chemical leak, fire or terrorist attack that requires instant action is considered an immediate crisis.
    Despite the nature of the crisis it is essential that the response to the situation be prompt, deliberate, and coordinated to ensure safety.

    Before Crisis Strikes

    A crisis team of administrators, teachers, secretaries, counselors, custodial staff, community representatives, health professionals, and law enforcement officials should be involved in developing a customized plan for that particular campus. A crisis plan includes the following:

    • Reasons for the plan
    • The types of crisis covered in the plan
    • checklist for responding to each type of crisis
    • Procedures common for all crisis
    • Emergency telephones
    • Detailed campus maps
    • Evacuation plans
    • Emergency signal explanations
    • Guidelines of effective communication with staff, parents, media, the district office and community

    It is crucial that the crisis plan be clearly communicated. It is a living document that is readily available. Information, maps and telephone number are current and changes are made when necessary. Training sessions, stimulations and drills should be conducted throughout the year so that each individual understands the procedures. Ensuring that all stakeholders, especially children are aware of what to do during a crisis can save lives.

    In the Midst of a Crisis

    Once crisis strikes the initial moments and decisions made are vital. The crisis team leaders should immediately activate the crisis management plan. Verify the facts. Verification of factual information should include what, who, where and how many involved in the situation. By gathering accurate information leaders can determine the type and extent of the crisis. This will also keep fear, anger and rumors from getting out of control.
    The decision to call emergency services if necessary should be made promptly. The pre designated caller should know the facts and have available floor plans and keys. Medical assistance should continue until help arrives. It’s also important to keep a detailed record of the sequence of events and a log of all calls made and received.
    Proper warning signal should be activated to inform staff members. Everyone should already be familiar with varied signals and evacuation plans. The signals may require a lock down where students must stay in the classroom or three bells indicating “all clear”. An account for all individuals should be immediately updated within each school wide the situation is real or just a drill.
    A member of the crisis team needs to inform the district Superintendent of the situation and keep them updated throughout the ordeal. The team should meet to review and determine how best to inform the staff, parents, students and community know about what is happening and what to except. Staff and parents need reassurance so prompt accurate information is necessary. Memos and facts sheets can be used to keep them informed. Keep in mind that in a crisis many of these procedures happen simultaneously.

    After the Crisis

    The aftermath of a crisis is a time of reflection, healing, and support. Professional counselors, social workers or other health professionals need to be made available to help individuals deal with the situation. Hold debriefings daily to update media, staff and parents. Finally make plans to remember the anniversaries of the crisis. Allow students and staff to express their feeling through memories and tributes to honor any victims. This is also the time to re-evaluate the efficient of the crisis management plan to make changes or additions.

    Concluding Remarks

    Leaders are scrutinized on how crisis are handled. Failure to prepare has the potential to be more devastating then the tragedy itself. A plan that individuals are familiar with, rehearse and evaluate will minimize chaos and confusion. To ensure the safety of all stakeholders an efficient crisis management plan is critical, lives are at stake.

    Helpful Online Planning Resources


    Gallagher, D. R., Bagin, D. & Edward, M. H. (2005). The school and community
    Relations (8th Ed.). Getting Ready For A Crisis (pp.160-173).Allyn and Bacon.

    U.S. Department of Education. (2007). Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A Guide
    for Schools and Communities. (Publication No. ED003416P). Washington, DC:?

    Retrieved June 19, 2008, from National Education Association Health Information
    Network: guide


  7. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD said:

    William Allan Kritsonis & Other National Leaders in Educational Leadership, Administration, Supervision, Researchers, and Teacher Educators

    Dr. Charles M. Achilles, Professor, Seton Hall University, 53 Snug Harbor, Geneva, NY.
    315-789-2399; 315-789-9332; 973-313-6334’

    Dr. Vincent a. Anfara, Jr., Professor, The University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Educational Administration and Policy, A321 Clayton Complex, Knoxville, TN 37996-3430
    865-974-4985; 504-957-4109;

    Dr. Charles T. Araki, Professor Emeritus, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 3017 Kaloaluiki Street, Honolulu, HI 96822- 808-956-7704

    Dr. Joe Blackbourn, Associate Professor, The University of Mississippi, School of Education, Curriculum and Instruction, University, MS 38677 662-234-3092; 662-832-0731; 662-232-7588;

    Dr. Richard Blackbourn, Dean, College of Education, Mississippi State University, Box 9710, Miss State, MS 39762 662-325-3717; 662-325-8784 Fax;

    Dr. Kathleen M. Brown, Head, Department of Educational Leadership, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 103B Peabody Hall, CB#3500, School of Education, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-#3500 919-843-8166; 919-843-4572 Fax;

    Dr. Gerald Calais, Professor, McNeese State University, Department of Teacher Education,
    Burton College of Education, Lake Charles, LA 70609 337-475-5419;

    Dr. Patti L. Chance, Professor, Department of Educational Administration and Higher Education, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, Box 453002, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3002 702-895-3491; 702-228-3791

    Dr. Robert B. Cooter, Jr., Professor, Department of Instruction and Curriculum Leadership, College of Education, 400b Ball Hall, The University of Memphis, Memphis TN 38152-3570
    901-678-5938; 901-678-3881 Fax; rcooter@memphis,edu

    Dr. John Cotsakos, Associate Professor, California State University at Sacramento, Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, College of Education, 6000 J. Street, Sacramento, CA 95819-6079 916-933-7134; 916-275-5887; 916-933-7681 Fax;

    Dr. Barry S. Davidson, Troy University, Department of Psychology, Counseling and Foundations of Education, 10 McCartha Hall, Troy, AL 36082 561-762-8134; 334-670-5682;

    Dr. Donald F. DeMoulin, Professor, Doctoral Program, Argosy University – Atlanta, 980 Hammond Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30328 713-697-8776;

    Dr. Ben C. DeSpain, Professor, Doctoral Program, Department of Educational Leadership, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Horrabin Hall 81, Macomb, ILL Cell: 270-339-8552;

    Dr. Feng S. Din, Professor, Department of Education, University of Virginia’s College of Wise,
    1 College Avenue, Wise, VA 24293 540-328-4412

    Dr. Rita Dunn, Professor and Director, Learning Styles Network, St. John’s University, Division of Instructional Leadership, Utopia Parkways, Jamaica, NY 11439 803-642-4390

    Dr. Fenwick W. English, R. Wendell Eaves Distinguished Professor of Educational Leadership, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Educational Leadership, Peabody Hall – CB #3500, School of Education, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3500 Cell: 919-451-1493; 919-843-4572;

    Mr. Joe Feucht, Purchasing Supervisor, Calcasieu Parish School Board, 1724 Kirkman Street, Lake Charles, LA 70602-0800 337-794-4155

    Pam T. Barber-Freeman, Head, Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling, Prairie View A&M University/The Texas A&M University System, Delco 212, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Prairie View, TX 77446 Office: 281-856-7072; Cell: 713-582-8066

    Janetta C. Gilliam, Assistant Director of Student Employment, Prairie View A&M University/The Texas A&M University System, Prairie View, TX 77446 Cell: 713-5450-0011;

    Dr. Jeanne Gerlach, Associate Vice President for K-16 Initiatives & Dean of the College of Education, University of Texas at Arlington, Box 19227, 701 S. College Street, Arlington, TX 76019 817-272-5476; 817-272-7453 Fax;

    Dr. Clement Glenn, Associate Professor and Vice President for Student Services, Prairie View A&M University, Box 519, Prairie View, TX 77446 936-825-6300;

    Dr. Kimberly Grantham Griffith, Associate Professor and Editor, The Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research, Lamar University, Department of Professional Pedagogy, College of Education and Human Development, PO Box 10034, Beaumont, TX 77710 409-893-5590; 409-832-6769; 409-880-8684;

    Dr. Richard Hartnett, Chair, Educational Leadership Studies, West Virginia University, College of Education, 608 Allen Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506 304-293-3707

    Dr. David E. Herrington, Associate Professor and Director of the Principal’s Center,
    Department of Educational Leadership and Counseling, Prairie View A&M University/Member of the Texas A&M University System, Box 519, Prairie View, TX 77446 979-293-0613;

    Dr. Teresa Ann Hughes, Results in Education, 19307 Solon Springs Court, Tomball, TX 77375
    281-290-6518; 281-433-0198;
    (First graduate in PhD Program in Educational Leadership at Prairie View A&M University/Member of the Texas A&M University System, Fall 2006

    Dr. G. Peter Ienatsch, Dean Emeritus, College of Education, University of Texas of the Permian Basin, 100 West Rainbow Drive, Ruidoso, NM 88345

    Clarence Johnson, Director of Safe and Secure Schools, Aldine ISD, 18635 Hiddenbay Way, Spring, TX 77379 Cell: 713-419-2683;

    Dr. Dan L. King, Vice President of Academic Affairs, Rhode Island College, 600 Mt. Pleasant Avenue, Providence, RI 62908 401-456-8003;

    Dr. Lloyd Kinnison, Professor, Texas Woman’s University, College of Education, Denton, TX 76204-5769 940-381-0520; 940-898-2270;

    Dr. Lloyd Korhonen, Director, Center for Distance Learning Research, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-1588 409-862-7125; 409-862-7127

    Dr. James D. Laub, Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction, Poteet Independent School District, P.O. Box 138, Poteet, TX 78065 432-254-8705 Cell; 432-686-0003 Work;;

    Dr. Angus MacNeil, Professor, University of Houston, 15421 Stonehill Drive, Houston, TX 77062 281-286-6731; 713-743-5038;

    Dr. Robert L. Marshall, Professor, Doctoral Program, Department of Educational Leadership, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Horrabin Hall 81, Macomb, IL 61455 Dr. Marshall is Senior National Editor for National FORUM Journals,

    Dr. M. Paul Mehta, Professor and Dean (Former Dean), Prairie View A&M University/Member of the Texas A&M University System, The Whitlowe R. Green College of Education, Box 519, Prairie View, TX 77446 Cell: 281-770-7659; Home: 281-855-8633;
    Dr. Allen A. Mori, Provost, California State University, Dominguez Hills, 1000 E. Victoria Street, Carson, CA 90747 310-243-3307;

    Dr. Lautrice Nickson, Assistant Principal, Conroe Independent School District, 2422 Coachlight, Conroe, TX 77384 936-321-7089; 936-521-5061 –
    Dr. William J. O’Neill, Professor Emeritus, Iowa Wesleyan College, 802 East Pine Place, Mt. Pleasant, IA 52641 319-986-2190;

    Dr. Rosemary Papa, Del & Jewel Lewis Endowed Chair for Learner Centered Leadership, Northern Arizona University, College of Education, PO Box 5774, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5774
    916-832-1336; 928-523-8741

    Dr. Arthur L. Petterway, Assistant Principal, Houston Independent School District. Home Address: 5300 N. Braeswood, Houston, TX 77096 832-693-2809; 713-748-8303; 713-498-8667

    Dr. Thomas A. Rakes, Chancellor, The University of Tennessee at Martin, Administration Building, Office of the Chancellor, Martin, TN 38238 881-587-7010; 731-587-9010;

    Dr. Bill Reaves, CREATE, 3232 College Park Drive, Suite 303, The Woodlands, TX 77384 – 281-893-6918; 936-273-7661;
    Dr. Louis Reed, (Former Superintendent Port Arthur I.S.D., Port Arthur, TX)
    3031 13th Street, Port Arthur, TX 77642 409-718-0812

    Dr. Roselia A. Salinas, Talent Recruitment Strategist, 1706 Southland Drive, Wesleco, TX 78596 – 713-572-7928;

    Dr. Yolanda E. Smith, Senior Robotics Instructor, United Space Alliance, NASA, 4026 Almond Lake Drive, Houston, TX 77047 Cell: 713-703-0429

    Rhodena Townsell, Principal, Madisonville Elementary, Madisonville Consolidated Independent School District, PO Box 879, Madisonville, TX 77864 903-536-3414; 936-348-1877; –

    Dr. Thomas Valesky, Professor, Florida Gulf Coast University, 19501 Treeline Avenue South, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565 941-590-7793; 941-432-5559; 941-948-0334 Fax

    Dr. James Van Patten, Professor Emeritus, University of Arkansas at Fayetteville, 434 Hawthorne Street, Fayeteville, AR 72701 516-278-6572

    Monica G. Williams, Director of Development, Rice University, Office of Development, MS81, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892; Cell 832-498-8733; Direct 717-348-4332; Fax 713-348-5166; Mobile: 832-498-8733

    Dr. Ben Wilson, Jr., Professor Emeritus, Sul Ross State University/Rio Grande College, HC 34 Box 1016, Uvalde, TX 78801 830-278-7445

    Dr. James A. Wood, Professor, Sul Ross State University/Rio Grande College, 400 Sul Ross Drive, Uvalde, TX 78801 830-279-3033;

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